Environment And Its Protection Pdf
File Name: environment and its protection .zip
- ACTIONS THAT PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT
- Environmental Resources Pdf
- Environmental protection
- The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
In this article, she has given the overview of constitutional provisions pertinent to environment protection in India. A rapid increase in global warming, deforestation, air, water and other forms of pollution is posing a great threat to the environment and its living beings.
ACTIONS THAT PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT
Corresponding Author. Environmental protection is one of the basic prerequisites for the overall development of any country in the world. If economic growth and development are to be established, and there is no country in the world that does not want to do so, biodiversity must be contributed.
As awareness of environmental protection is developed, human awareness is also developed about the need to preserve the environment by preventing adverse impacts on nature. Law, as a scientific discipline, plays a significant role in these endeavors. For millennia, nature—specifically living systems—provided food and fiber to nourish and clothe us and materials to build us homes and transport . Living systems conditioned the air we breathe, regulated the global water cycle, and created the soil that sustained our developing agriculture.
They decomposed and absorbed our wastes. Beyond practicality, nature fed the human spirit. But pressure on nature from the impact of 6 billion humans is taking its toll. Living systems worldwide are collapsing. We have not always had such devastating effects. When modern humans emerged some , years ago, changes we caused happened slowly, and over relatively small geographic scales.
But now change is fast, fueled by unconstrained population growth and advancing technologies. The ecological footprint of modern human society is huge. The result is global ecological disruption and biotic impove rishment. For thousands of years, people worried most about the health of individuals, including injuries in fights or wars, periodic famine, vector-borne diseases, and accidents. Modern agriculture and the domestication of animals created new health challenges by transferring a vast array of new contagious diseases to humans.
The industrial revolution brought some relief; wastewater treatment, for example, reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. But new technologies generated new threats, ranging from toxic industrial chemicals to global transportation systems that spread infectious diseases and exposed individuals to a greater variety of diseases. Modern environmental regulation and medicine have attacked these problems, but they struggle to stay ahead of evolving, unforeseen consequences, such as the resistance of many disease organisms to antibiotics.
The human condition has, of course, been the subject of intellectual and practical concern since civilization began. But economic and political changes during the industrial revolution moved humans away from their ties to the land.
Technology and trade liberated people from concerns about life-support systems, or so it seemed. Lessons of the past——especially accumulated knowledge about connections to living systems—seemed increasingly irrelevant. So-called neoclassical economics argued incorrectly that economic growth and the forces that promote it are good for the environment and for the poor. The attainment of societal well—being was assumed to be an inevitable by-product of a market economy.
Present environmental trends and the growing gap between rich and poor demonstrate that this assumption is flawed. We are increasingly conscious of the effects of our activities on the natural environment . Man has always affected the environment to some extent, but this has become a serious matter of public concern during the last century. These effects may be classified according to the area used or affected by the energy generators, and by the pollution they produce.
This pollution may be local or global, and includes not only poisonous chemicals, but also visual and aural pollution, and affects the atmosphere, the land and the sea. When considering man-made pollution, it is useful in appropriate cases to put it in perspective by comparing it with the natural sources of pollution that are beyond our control. Thus, bush fires due to lightning strikes have always occurred, and are even necessary for the germination of some plants.
Volcanic eruptions throw huge amounts of poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere, and this falls on land and sea. The earth has great natural recuperative powers and, once the source of the pollution is removed, the land, lakes and seas return to their previous state. Reflect for a moment on the miracle — the extraordinarily rare combination of factors that together makes life on earth possible .
Then think of the incredibly rich life forms, species, and ecosystems that exist at this brief point in the billions of years the earth has been evolving. Ecology aims to understand how natural systems such as plant and animal communities are organized and function . This includes investigating the subsystems and other parts of natural systems, the relationships among them, and the processes at and above the level of the individual organism that allow biological systems to persist and evolve as dynamic entities.
Modern ecology emerged from the study of natural history, which focused primarily on compiling descriptions and catalogues of plants and animals and which generally considered biological systems including species to be static entities. Thus, ecology and evolutionary biology are closely allied and are considered one field by many biologists. Although ecology developed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as a natural science, many of its concepts and principles have been applied to other fields, ranging from human social development to social and cultural systems and to epidemiology.
Also, the traditional focus on the study of natural systems such as forests, grasslands, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and oceans has increasingly been extended beyond purely natural systems. Recently, a social-ecological systems perspective and resilience theory have developed within the field of ecology to deal explicitly with humans and nature as a single, integrated, and complex system.
This integrative approach to understanding living systems has been found necessary to meaningfully address issues such as sustainability, a concept that implies the dependence of human health and well-being on healthy ecosystems.
In this way ecology has become as much a worldview as a scientific discipline. A baseline is a point of departure; a benchmark; a point along a continuum that marks progress toward a goal .
Central to the design of the National Environmental Legacy Act Legacy Act or Act is the collection of baseline data about natural resources, the definition of the nature and quality of the environmental legacy to be preserved, and ongoing monitoring to ensure preservation of the desired legacy. None of these are simple tasks, and they have been made infinitely more complicated by the accelerated pace of anthropogenic change, which has resulted in both shifting and already-shifted baselines.
The pitfall of shifting baselines is that environmental degradation often goes unrecognized by successive generations, which may not appreciate the degraded state of what they perceive as a pristine and functional ecosystem. The shifting-baselines phenomenon poses several major challenges to designing an effective Legacy Act.
First, if we fail to consider historical environmental conditions and set conservation goals based on already-shifted baselines, we may constrain — even doom — the resource legacy we seek to transfer.
Second, resource management decisions that fail to address gradual environmental change may subtly shift baselines, diminish the environmental legacy, and eventually push ecosystems to the brink. Finally, accelerated anthropogenic change ensures that some baselines will shift irreversibly, and in some cases, new, transformed ecosystems will emerge and stabilize within foreseeable generations.
Failure to understand and address these challenges in ways more sophisticated than the traditional metrics of species counts, acreage amounts, and pollutant levels could doom Legacy Act. To preserve the options available to future generations, an effective legacy act must consider the legacy of ecological functions, processes, services, and their interactions, as well as the ability of ecosystems to absorb and adapt to change.
Over the past four decades, environmental law has evolved into a legal system of statutes, regulations, guidelines, requirements, policies, and case-specific judicial and administrative interpretations that address a wide-ranging set of environmental issues and concerns . These laws and requirements address not only the natural environment, including the air, water, and land, but also how humans interact with that natural environment and ecological systems.
In addition, this system of environmental laws involves multiple layers of regulatory controls, since not only the federal government, but also state and local levels of government, have imposed interrelated and sometimes overlapping environmental requirements. This legal system is complex in itself and is made even more challenging by the difficulty of the interdisciplinary subject matter to be regulated health, safety, and environment and the quickly evolving scientific and technical issues typically presented in environmental cases.
Environmental laws and policies are predominantly goal-oriented . Standards, principles and procedures for the protection of the environment are often instrumental to achieve, say, the conservation of fragile ecosystems and endangered species, the preservation of fresh water and other natural resources, the restoration of contaminated soils as well as the stratospheric ozone layer, and the protection of human health.
This goal oriented feature is evident in national as well as international law. It is apparent also when legal approaches to managing environmental problems are compared with economic or market-based instruments, such as emission trading, environmental taxes and voluntary agreements and codes of conduct. National statutes and international treaties, standards, instruments and procedures are assessed with these underlying objectives in mind, and mainly analyzed in terms of effectiveness and achievability of the set objectives.
Even sustainable development, as an overarching societal objective with obvious environmental connotations, reflects this goal-oriented conception of environmental law and policy. Yet, environmental law also involves priorities, conflicts and clashes of interests — and concerns for justice and fairness. In fact, any drafting, negotiation, adoption, application and enforcement of environmental laws—indeed comprehending environmental law in general—induces justice considerations, i.
Although well established concepts in environmental law, whether based on custom or statutes, appear neutral on their face, a closer study, or simply placing them in a context, may reveal disproportionate burdening or restricting effects for certain groups or categories when these concepts are applied. It may also show how certain interests or subjects are ignored or demeaned. Such concerns are indeed raised in local as well as global contexts, and they also include structural issues, such as gender, class, ethnicity and — on a global scale — North—South relations.
International environmental law is notoriously uncertain in relation to the normative content of its norms . There are many factors which contribute to this state of affairs, one of them, for example, being the method of international law making, which in many cases is based on the principle of the balancing of the interests of all interested parties, such as the management and apportionment of rights in relation to international watercourses and the responsibility of States for environmental damage, which relies to a certain degree on this principle.
Other factors, which play a significant role in environmental norm-setting, are the competing interests and differentiation in the legal position of developed and developing States, i.
Policy makers responding to these demands increasingly understand that environmental protection must be addressed in a holistic and expansive manner . Local problems cannot be separated from national, regional, or even global conditions. As a result, the interface of domestic both national and local and international environmental law has rapidly expanded.
Such an evolution corresponds to the physical reality of a biosphere composed of interdependent elements that do not recognize political boundaries and the increasingly transnational character of the human activities that harm nature and its processes.
Internationalization of markets and the emergence of a global civil society present new opportunities as well as new challenges. Overconsumption threatens to exhaust living and nonliving resources, whereas rising greenhouse gas emissions detrimentally modify the global climate.
New problems resulting from technology and changes in the nature or scope of human activities are constantly being identified, such as the introduction of unprocessed endocrine-disrupting pharmaceuticals into fresh water. As a consequence, there is a constant need to develop and revise the national and international legal framework. The geographic scope of environmental law is global, but so are its interdisciplinary requirements.
Beyond such obvious topics as water law and endangered species legislation, laws and policies concerning energy, trade, investment, transportation, and consumer protection also affect environmental conditions.
At the center of the problems, impacts, and solutions are individuals with rights guaranteed by national and international law. The relevance of economics for the evaluation and design of environmental policy has numerous dimensions . Some relate to the basis for environmental decision making, e. First, environmental resources, amenities, and quality have economic value.
Second, while markets are useful in providing society with goods and services in general, there are serious market imperfections what some describe as market failures that justify government intervention to protect the environment. Third, in the proper context, economics can contribute to evaluating and prioritizing alternative policies for improving the environment, both within a given area of concern such as the reduction of air pollution from a variety of sources and among different areas of concern such as air pollution, water pollution, and hazardous wastes.
Fourth, economics, through the application of cost-benefit analysis, offers an alternative policy rationale for determining whether, and to what extent, a environmental problem should be controlled or addressed.
Finally, market-based instruments are increasingly promoted as complements to, and sometimes as substitutes for, traditional regulatory approaches. This is illustrative of the fact that economics and law compete politically for dominance in environmental policy formulation. In contemporary environmental law and policy, economic analysis provides the dominant theoretical framework for thinking and reasoning about environmental protection .
Broadly speaking, this framework involves evaluating environmental protection with respect to the goal of producing economically efficient policies and valuing specific environmental resources with respect to their success in satisfying the subjective preferences that people express as consumers making market choices.
Various laws and executive orders require this kind of analysis, and advocates of both weaker and stronger environmental protection often draw on such analyses to influence the public debate in ways that support their favored view of policy decisions. The normative criterion that grounds the framework that this book advances is social justice. The idea that public policy should be guided by concerns of social justice rather than economic efficiency arises in various forms of legal and political reasoning about the distributional impacts of environmental protection.
Environmental Resources Pdf
The stated purposes of NEPA are: To declare a national policy which will encourage productive and enjoyable harmony between man and his environment; to promote efforts which will prevent or eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man; to enrich the understanding of the ecological systems and natural resources important to the Nation; and to establish a Council on Environmental Quality. NEPA of
You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Turn on more accessible mode. Turn off more accessible mode. Skip Ribbon Commands. Skip to main content.
Environmental protection is the practice of protecting the natural environment by individuals, organizations and governments. Due to the pressures of overconsumption , population growth and technology, the biophysical environment is being degraded, sometimes permanently. This has been recognized, and governments have begun placing restraints on activities that cause environmental degradation. Since the s, environmental movements have created more awareness of the multiple environmental problems. There is disagreement on the extent of the environmental impact of human activity , so protection measures are occasionally debated.
Environmental awareness is to understand the fragility of our environment and the importance of its protection. Promoting environmental awareness is an easy way to become an environmental steward and participate in creating a brighter future for our children. To define environmental awareness we must first understand the environmentalist movement. Environmentalism is an ideology that evokes the necessity and responsibility of humans to respect, protect, and preserve the natural world from its anthropogenic caused by humans afflictions. By teaching our friends and family that the physical environment is fragile and indispensable, we can begin fixing the problems that threaten it.
Are you sure you know how to protect the environment? Many of us believe that we lead lives that respect nature but our consumption habits give us away.
The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
Durable, energy-efficient devices started a design revolution. To make the biggest impact on our carbon footprint, we focus our efforts on the most carbon-intensive components — and then we reduce their footprint. By redesigning, reengineering, and rethinking the materials and energy that Apple products use, we can further decrease the carbon emissions generated from making them. Your device is designed to be long lasting.
Шифруя послание, Сьюзан просто заменила в нем каждую букву на предшествующую ей алфавите. Для расшифровки Беккеру нужно было всего лишь подставить вместо имеющихся букв те, что следовали непосредственно за ними: А превращалось в В, В - в С и так далее. Беккер быстро проделал это со всеми буквами. Он никогда не думал, что четыре слова могут сделать его таким счастливым: IM GLAD WE MET Что означало: Я рада, что мы встретились. Он быстро нацарапал на программке ответ и протянул Сьюзан: LDSNN Сьюзан, прочитав, просияла.
Он решительно подошел к терминалу и запустил весь набор программ системных оценок ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Твое сокровище в беде, коммандер, - пробормотал. - Не веришь моей интуиции. Так я тебе докажу. ГЛАВА 20 Городская больница располагалась в здании бывшей начальной школы и нисколько не была похожа на больницу. Длинное одноэтажное здание с огромными окнами и ветхое крыло, прилепившееся сзади.
Говорите, - сказал он, быстро проглотив пирог. - Джабба, - проворковала женщина в ответ. - Это Мидж. - Королева информации! - приветствовал ее толстяк.
Беккер перевел свои Сейко на местное время - 9. 10 вечера, по местным понятиям еще день: порядочный испанец никогда не обедает до заката, а ленивое андалузское солнце редко покидает небо раньше десяти. Несмотря на то что вечер только начинался, было очень жарко, однако Беккер поймал себя на том, что идет через парк стремительным шагом.