Research On Elearning And Ict In Education Pdf
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- “I’m not against online teaching, but what about us?”: ICT in Ghana post Covid-19
- Research and readings
- Vol. 29 (2021)
- Research and readings
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Literature survey was done. The study used examining, categorizing, tabulating and recombining for data analyses, through hermeneutics, discourse and heuristic analyses. Findings: The context of an institution where new eLearning systems are introduced includes many things but most critical are the users. Their mindset and digital literacy is reported over and over as the critical success and failure factors for eLearning development and use practices.
“I’m not against online teaching, but what about us?”: ICT in Ghana post Covid-19
Globally, Information and Communication Technology ICT is regarded as a dependable vehicle for facilitating educational reform and development, a platform for communication, and as a means to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal Four SDG 4. The paper identifies critical factors that affect online learning, recommends post COVID strategies to promote e-learning for policymakers in education and the government, and concludes with a conceptual model for emergency transition to e-learning.
Online learning is hailed as an essential force in democratizing education Jones It is a way of opening education to populations who had restricted access because of geography, status or physical handicap Carr-Chellman Khan defines it as an innovative method to instruct students in remote areas, which involves all types of learning that is done using the computer or other ICT resources.
Since the term was first introduced in , it is used as an overlapping concept with blended learning, e-learning, online courses, and online or distance education Singh and Thurman The advancement of ICT has called for online learning as a feasible and economically appropriate means of extending quality higher education Asunka The role of ICT in education, specifically higher education, cannot be downplayed, it is beneficial for teachers and students Aljaraideh and Bataineh However, the challenge associated with online learning is the access to ICT resources because online learning thrives on the availability of ICT facilities Arthur-Nyarko and Kariuki, , b.
The significant role ICT plays in the development of any nation has called for countries to produce ICT literate citizens Crisolo, According to the authors, ICT in education enhances student learning, provides education to students with no or limited access to education, aid in facilitating the training of teachers, and enhances the skilled workforce and promote social mobility.
ICT has the ability to enhance learning, make a subject appealing, facilitate problem-solving, communication, research skills, and decision-making process Hong, Waluyo adds that ICT is a positive predictor of the academic achievement of students in mathematics, science, and reading. ICT also facilitates teaching and e-learning, which ultimately have a positive effect on teaching, learning, and research activities.
A general assumption is that for Ghana to meet economic, social, and political global demands, ICT should be prioritized. Another 60, laptops were also purchased to be distributed to junior high schools Education Sector Performance Report, One of the major challenges in the Ghanaian education system is the inequality of educational resources which includes usage of computers and other ICT materials Buabeng-Andoh, Antwi et al.
Governments should fund ICT projects that emphasizes on the needs, capacities, perspectives, and aspirations of the greater number of people living in rural areas David, The main objective of the study is to provide possible solutions for successful transitioning, implementation and sustenance of e-learning programs.
There are limited studies that thoroughly examines the effectiveness of and barriers to the online learning, and identify critical contextualized factors to enhance online learning in developing countries like Ghana since the inception of the COVID The Government of Ghana has invested several resources and initiated many promulgated policies to ensure ICT is accessible to every student in Ghana because of its pivotal role in education.
This policy was reviewed twice in and until a revised policy document was made available in The main goal of the revised version was to facilitate the integration, utilization, and modernization of ICT in schools in Ghana. It was proposed that ICT should be integrated as a core subject, an elective subject, and as a teaching tool for all other subject areas. The policy highlighted that ICT access and literacy is low in Ghana.
Boni in his study concluded that both teachers and students in Ghana lacked the efficacy and creativity in using ICT for teaching and learning. Mubashir-Ahmed attributes the the challenges associated with ICT integration in Ghanaian schools to lack of internet access, lack of quality teachers, insufficient number of computers, high cost of ICT gadgets, and lack of electric power in some communities.
Another study in Ghana revealed that access to electricity is a major factor affecting online learning in the country Arthur-Nyarko and Kariuki, , b. Despite the unprecedented efforts by successive governments to ensure ICT is integrated in teaching and learning, the process have been fraught with a lot of challenges in Ghana, especially in the rural areas. Ghana ranked th among countries in the global ICT development index in after being ranked rd in International Telecommunication Union, ; International Telecommunication Union, In lieu of the COVID crisis, the government of Ghana announced the suspension of all school operations both pre-tertiary and tertiary on March 15, , as parts of the efforts to stop the spread of the virus Cromwell, The closure of universities and schools have disrupted the learning of students and have deprived students opportunities for growth and development UNESCO, Digital learning emerged as an ultimate response to the disruption in education due to the COVID lockdown of schools.
Since the lockdown, the government of Ghana has considered the possibility of initiating online courses for students. Instead of been proactive in ensuring rigorous implementation of online teaching and learning, the education system was stagnant until it was prompted by the COVID crisis.
He further declared that the Ministry had plans in place to broadcast more contents to the Junior High School JHS and upper primary students. However, the National Union of Ghana Students NUGS has petitioned the government to halt all online academic activities launched in the universities across the country Anyorigya, The association cited inadequate bundle incentives for schools lecturers and students , lack of properly laid framework for the implementation of online learning, and the plight of needy students who have been left out of the online learning platforms because of their inability to settle school bills.
Another concern raised by the NUGS is the possibility of compulsory exams and assignments on e-learning platforms that will disadvantage students who are unable to participate in the online learning because of factors beyond their control. Also, the report mentioned that African universities and teacher education institutions do not have the adequate ability to help integrate ICT in schools.
With the limited access to ICT resources and institutional challenges in its implementation in Sub-Saharan countries such as Ghana, there is a need for the government and education sectors across the country to address contextual and environmental difficulties faced by needy and rural school students who are excluded from the e-learning platforms which are no fault of theirs.
In the US, a meta-analysis of existing data revealed that students engaged in online learning performed better than those in face-to-face sessions while students who blended online and traditional learning performed the best of all The Council of Independent Colleges, A student may be part of the online learning but may not actively use the service or follow the tutor Bean, et al.
Barriers identified in literature include; high cost, inadequate infrastructure, lack of ICT skills, rejection of e-learning by faculty members, and lack of accessibility to quality internet connection and electricity. Technology and gadgets needed to make learning effective may not be cheap, affecting the online process negatively Srichanyachon, Limited funding can affect institutions from hosting online learning Bean, et al. Asunka , he concluded that only 5 out of 22 students had access to computer and internet connectivity at home.
Tutors ought to have required advanced technological skills which sometimes require schools to hire tutors from outside companies who already have the skills Bean, et al.
Lack of experience with online teaching is a barrier to organizing online education Luongo, Students who do not have prior knowledge and experience in online learning sometimes also lack technical assistance and support systems Srichanyachon, Some faculty members also consider developing online courses as time consuming in comparison to traditional methods of teaching The Council of Independent Colleges, Slow and unreliable network connections affect the quality of online learning Bean, et al.
Instructions can be delayed as a result of poor internet connections Srichanyachon, In the study. Lack of internet access and computers in homes in rural areas affect the progress of online learning DePaul, Lack of constant supply of electricity and internet access in rural communities also makes it difficult to assimilate the online education process Ivala, In education, ICT integration involves many interrelated factors such as curriculum, teacher characteristics, training and development, infrastructure, organisational factors like school leadership, school culture and supportive framework Judge, According to the authors, successful ICT integration has transformed communities and shaped their lives and thoughts.
Bingimlas outline some necessary steps to ensure successful ICT integration; provision of ICT resources both hardware and software , training new pedagogical approaches to faculty members resistance to change, provision of training courses on how to deal with new gadgets and modern technologies, providing sufficient time for daily lessons, and provision of continual reliable technological support. Sarkar lists the critical elements for to be considered during the implementation of ICT in learning; leadership issues, equitable distribution of ICT resources and sustainability, and financial issues.
The study adopted a qualitative method using a narrative inquiry approach to explore the perceptions of students on online learning in Ghana and how to successfully integrate ICT in education to improve online learning for students, especially those in urban poor and rural areas in Ghana.
In a qualitative study, a central phenomenon is the process, key concept or idea that is studied, and a researcher learns more from participants through exploration Creswell, Data was collected through interviews. The researcher used a semi-structured interview guide comprising of a list of prepared questions related to the research questions to conduct the interview. The instrument was prepared based on recurring themes in extant literature and was screened for accuracy and validity by a researcher in Ghana.
This allowed the researchers to ask open-ended questions to ensure respondents give their broad perspective about the topic of the study. Interviews allow a researcher to probe and get an in-depth meaning of the feelings, perceptions and attitudes of participants Gaffas, All tertiary students from urban poor and rural areas who took part in the online learning in Ghana formed the target population.
Fifteen 15 of the students were randomly selected to be part of the study. Five 5 students were taken each from the 3 most cosmopolitan regions in Ghana Greater Accra, Ashanti region, and Central region to make up the total sample of the study. Students from the tertiary institutions in Ghana who were taking part in the online learning in Ghana were recruited to find answers to the research questions. An introductory letter was sent to the randomly selected students about the purpose of the study and to seek their consent to be part of the study.
After the consent of the study respondents were gained, the researcher scheduled an appointment with each of the participants to conduct the interview. The researcher transcribed the recorded interviews verbatim and the data was analyzed into themes and sub-themes using the NVivo The interviews were replayed severally to ensure the accuracy of the transcription.
The researcher used pseudonyms for each of the participants to ensure confidentiality. The findings of the interviews conducted suggest that the online learning in Ghana is not effective enough and is also fraught with a lot of challenges. The section concludes with innovative and some novel solutions found in extant literature to the problems identified in the study and a conceptual framework for transitioning to e-learning. Qualitative themes categories and sub-themes sub-categories of interview guide responses.
Most of the 10 students interviewed indicated that the online learning is the best alternative approach to teaching and learning during this pandemic. However, because of its spontaneous nature, and not an approach to education carefully thought of my school leaders and the government, they felt the online learning was not effective as they hoped for.
An ample amount of the students felt the lack of student-student interaction and teacher-student interaction negatively affected the effectiveness of the course. Let me take campus for example, on campus you go for lectures, you meet the lecturer, you will have this interaction, like face-to-face, so that makes you really comprehend what the lecturer is putting across, and aside that you even have the teaching assistants who are willing to help you understand or if you have any difficulty they are able address that issue.
Many believed that the difficulty with internet access and network challenges will result in a negative effect on the outcomes. Some of the students were of the view that sometimes communication between teacher and students is not possible because the e-learning system can go off for a while before it starts functioning.
Communication is not good. You will be having a class, and then the network starts misbehaving, meanwhile, the teacher is talking! How do you retrieve the words he has already said?
What if the words he has said is the stepping stone to understand the next sentences? More than half of the participants interviewed believed that the traditional approach to teaching and learning is more suitable for them as compared to the online learning they were experiencing.
So I think I prefer the marker-board because taking my course, for example, it really helps, yes. One of the major challenge mentioned by almost all of the participants was the financial commitments they have to make to ensure they actively take part of the course. According to the students, the online method of learning was expensive than the traditional approach to learning they experienced. So far the has given us a data SIM which gives us 1.
But the problem is, this bundle is just something small. I remember my first zoom class was not more than 30 minutes, and megabytes was already gone. Persistently, the students lamented about the breakdown of the online platform. Sometimes you log in, and the site just jams, so that really hurt and when you have quiz to take, and you log in and the system jams and just log you out of the system.
Research and readings
Assistant Professor, DME. This study explores the perception of teachers and students regarding its advantages, limitations and recommendations. This qualitative case study was conducted from March to April Using maximum variation sampling, 12 faculty members and 12 students from University College of Medicine and University College of Dentistry, Lahore were invited to participate. Four focus group interviews, two each with the faculty and students of medicine and dentistry were carried out. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed using Atlas Ti.
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Vol. 29 (2021)
Globally, Information and Communication Technology ICT is regarded as a dependable vehicle for facilitating educational reform and development, a platform for communication, and as a means to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal Four SDG 4. The paper identifies critical factors that affect online learning, recommends post COVID strategies to promote e-learning for policymakers in education and the government, and concludes with a conceptual model for emergency transition to e-learning. Online learning is hailed as an essential force in democratizing education Jones It is a way of opening education to populations who had restricted access because of geography, status or physical handicap Carr-Chellman Khan defines it as an innovative method to instruct students in remote areas, which involves all types of learning that is done using the computer or other ICT resources.
Я так испугалась, увидев. - Не стоит, - удивился Беккер - Я зашел куда не следовало. - Моя просьба покажется вам безумной, - сказала она, заморгав красными глазами, - но не могли бы вы одолжить мне немного денег. Беккер посмотрел на нее в полном недоумении.
У тебя хорошее чутье, - парировал Стратмор, - но есть кое-что. Я ничего не нашел на Северную Дакоту, поэтому изменил направление поиска. В записи, которую я обнаружил, фигурирует другое имя - N DAKOTA.
Research and readings
Вы знаете, кто. - Какая разница? - огрызнулся светловолосый. - Позвольте вам сразу кое-что объяснить, - сказал директор. Секунду спустя оба, залившись краской, делали доклад директору Агентства национальной безопасности. - Д-директор, - заикаясь выдавил светловолосый. - Я - агент Колиандер. Рядом со мной агент Смит.
Если он хочет, чтобы мир узнал о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, позвоните в Си-эн-эн и снимите штанишки. Все равно сейчас ТРАНСТЕКСТ - это всего лишь дырка в земле. Так какая разница. Повисла тишина. Фонтейн, видимо, размышлял. Сьюзан попробовала что-то сказать, но Джабба ее перебил: - Чего вы ждете, директор.
В понедельник я проверю твою машину. А пока сваливай-ка ты отсюда домой. Сегодня же суббота. Найди себе какого-нибудь парня да развлекись с ним как следует. Она снова вздохнула. - Постараюсь, Джабба. Поверь мне, постараюсь изо всех сил.
Беккер повернулся и побежал, но успел сделать только один шаг. Мужчина выхватил оружие и выстрелил. Острая боль обожгла грудь Беккера и ударила в мозг. Пальцы у него онемели. Он упал.
Жила. - Да. Кошачья жила.
Последняя защитная стенка на центральном экране почти совсем исчезла.
Глядя, как он шелестит деньгами, Меган вскрикнула и изменилась в лице, по-видимому ложно истолковав его намерения. Она испуганно посмотрела на вращающуюся дверь… как бы прикидывая расстояние. До выхода было метров тридцать.
Он отпустил ее и прижал ладони к лицу. Из носа у него пошла кровь. Хейл упал на колени, не опуская рук.
Venti mille pesete. La Vespa.