Uses And Gratification Theory Blumler And Katz Pdf
File Name: uses and gratification theory blumler and katz .zip
The Uses and Gratification theory discusses the effects of the media on people.
- uses and gratification theory
- A Review of Theory and Research Based on Uses and Gratifications in HCI
- Uses and gratifications theory 1 Uses and gratifications theory Sociology Outline @BULLET @BULLET
In this study, on the basis of uses and gratifications theory, starting from IPTV audience demand, the author endeavors to explore how variables affect audience satisfaction and put forward feasible suggestions so as to improve IPTV audience satisfaction. Some mass communications scholars have contended that the uses and gratifications are not a rigorous social science theory. In this article, I argue just the opposite, and any attempt to speculate on the future direction of mass communication theory must seriously include the uses and gratifications approach.
uses and gratification theory
Over the past few decades, technology has truly revolutionized our lives. Perhaps one of the biggest transformations has occurred within mass communication. Prior to the industrial revolution, society had a virtually nonexistent form of mass media. However, as life began to transform, mass communication began to grow in all aspects.
With each decade within the twentieth century, edge-breaking theories were presented in relation to the communication field. Two theories that brought forth a relatively astonishing perspective to this field were the Uses and Gratifications Approach and the Dependency Theory. These theories truly revolutionized the way one characterizes mass communication. Elihu Katz first introduced the Uses and Gratification Approach, when he came up with the notion that people use the media to their benefit.
This theory was contemporary because it contradicted older views that assumed the audience was a passive group. The Uses and Gratifications Approach views the audience as active, meaning that they actively seek out specific media and content to achieve certain results or gratifications that satisfy their personal needs. The sources of the media chosen are distinctive.
Whether they are killing time or using it as a social tool, each medium is unique in its purpose. The uses and Gratifications Approach has five basic assumptions. This directly reflects and responds to the needs of the audience member in obtaining the media source. The receiver determines what is going to be absorbed and does not allow the media to influence them otherwise. The individual opinion is more powerful than what the media is portraying.
In response to this, they have created a wide range of choices that will meet these needs. The strongest rival to media based sources include face-to-face communication. This can often help an individual cope with circumstances surrounding them most effectively. Because of this, mass communication must compete strongly with non-media related sources and help create a need for itself as well as a proper balance between the two.
There have been several studies in all parts of the world that have sampled viewers and come to conclusions about the type of media used as well as the content explored. Furthermore, it was found that audience members use these media forms to shape their own identities. The theorists believe that the audience can only determine the value of the media content.
It is the individual audience members who make the decision to view the media; therefore, they place the value on it by their individual decision to view it. These basic assumptions provide a framework for understanding the exact correlation between the media and the viewers.
In addition, it provides a distinction as to how the audience is more or less active and the consequences of their involvement in the media as a whole. When one explores the Uses and Gratifications Approach, another theory that has emerged becomes quite prevalent, The Dependency Theory. It was, in a sense, an extension or addition to the Uses and Gratifications Approach brought about a few years earlier.
The theory is in essence an explanation of the correlating relationship between the media content, the nature of society, and the behavior of the audiences. It states that people in an urban society have become dependent on mass communication to assist them in receiving the information that they need, in order to make a variety of decisions concerning their everyday lives.
Therefore, if a person finds a medium that provides them with several functions that are central to their desires, they will be more inclined to continue to use that particular medium in the future.
Furthermore, one may see an increase in media usage when something important is coming up, such as a presidential election. These special circumstances make viewers more dependent on the media to find out what is happening in society. The dependency theory brings forth many unique propositions and functions. The cognitive changes that the Dependency Theory bring forth are multi-fold.
The media brings forth attitude formation and an impact on agenda setting. Since the theory complies with the idea that people rely on it for information determining their decisions, it clearly can help individuals develop certain attitudes regarding given subjects. In addition, it encourages them to converse about certain things.
The affective nature of the media is quite distinctive. It can create many different feelings such as fear, anxiety, and happiness. The media also can promote behavior changes. This can result in an audience member doing something that they would not ordinarily do. When analyzing any theory, one must looks towards some form of criteria to judge it by. The criteria that seems to be appropriate for the Uses and Gratifications Approach and The Dependency Theory seems to be logic, consistency, testability, and simplicity.
First, when analyzing the logical approach to both theories, they seem to pass. One can see with these theories that it is logical that individuals would choose what they want to view and can clearly gain from that. This is why we see an increase in viewers when important circumstances are happening within our country. Second, when focusing on the consistency aspect to the theories, this area is one that is somewhat differential. Although the theories are not highly contested, they do not correspond completely with previous research.
One may find it hard to believe that the media has no influence over the viewer at all. There are several circumstances within the field of advertising that suggest that people are influenced by the media. This suggests that people can be persuaded. The testability aspect seems somewhat unreliable. The way that the theories were primarily tested were through sampling the audience viewers.
The results could possibly be biased because individuals may not realize the power that the media has over them. In essence, the sampling was one sided. Finally, when one looks at the simplicity of the theories, they seem to pass. Both of the theories are extremely easy to understand and comprehend. In addition, they link together, which helps the perception of them become more explicit. With every theory, some criticism must be expected. One main criticism is based on the idea that the audience is completely active.
It seems as though the theorists feel that there is not room for any middle ground. In many cases people turn to viewing the media as a result of habit. This factor is not mention in their theory. Other critics argue that the broader public does not effect individual decisions regarding the media.
This is simply stating that the reason why most people view media or read newspapers is to gain societal information. Mass Communication has come a very long way over the last thirty years. Many different perspectives have been brought forth and analyzed in terms of effectiveness. The Uses and Gratifications Approach and The Dependency Theory were two theories that brought forth a new genre of ideas and aspects of cognition to mass communication.
The Use of Mass Communication. Davidson and Fredrick Yu. Littlejohn, Stephen. Theories of Human Communication: Seventh Edition. Rice, Ronald. The New Media. Rokeach, Sandra and Melvin DeFleur. New York,
A Review of Theory and Research Based on Uses and Gratifications in HCI
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Uses and gratifications theory asserts that people use media to gratify specific wants and needs. Uses and gratifications was first introduced in the s as scholars began to study why people choose to consume various forms of media. For the next few decades, uses and gratifications research mostly focused on the gratifications media users sought. Then, in the s, researchers turned their attention to the outcomes of media use and the social and psychological needs that media gratified. Uses and gratifications theory relies on two principles about media users. First, it characterizes media users as active in their selection of the media they consume. They are engaged and motivated in their media selections.
Users take an active part in the communication process and are goal oriented in their media use. The theorist say that a media user seeks out a media source that best fulfills the needs of the user. Uses and gratifications assume that the user has alternate choices to satisfy their need. The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Blumler and Katz believe that there is not merely one way that the populace uses media.
Peruse Blumler and Katz () in this spirit, and you will find that uses and gratifications theories abound in its pages. Wright defends a functionalist version.
Uses and gratifications theory 1 Uses and gratifications theory Sociology Outline @BULLET @BULLET
Uses and gratifications theory UGT is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. This communication theory is positivistic in its approach, based in the socio-psychological communication tradition, and focuses on communication at the mass media scale. It assumes that audience members are not passive consumers of media.
Over the past few decades, technology has truly revolutionized our lives. Perhaps one of the biggest transformations has occurred within mass communication. Prior to the industrial revolution, society had a virtually nonexistent form of mass media. However, as life began to transform, mass communication began to grow in all aspects. With each decade within the twentieth century, edge-breaking theories were presented in relation to the communication field.
Uses and Gratification conceptual model were also proposed both for library and information centers, and for interactive information retrieval systems. Review and analysis of published resources were used as the methodology of the article. Findings showed that UGT is in close connection with five laws of library science and their web version on one hand, and the user-oriented paradigm on the other hand.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how various gratifications obtained in the social media context affect customer participation, and its sequential effect on brand trust, brand commitment and word of mouth WOM in social media brand communities. The data were collected from respondents who used social media using a survey method. The data were assessed using AMOS with structural equation modeling. The findings depicted that among all gratifications obtained in the social media context, information seeking, incentive and brand likeability strongly affect customer participation, which sequentially affect brand trust, commitment and WOM in social media brand communities. In the context of social media brand communities, brand trust partially mediates the relationship between customer participation and its two outcome variables brand commitment and WOM. The present paper contributes that theory of uses and gratifications has particular significance and supposed to be provided further importance in the field of social media. It also presents a vivid and rich understanding of why customers use social media and participate in social media brand communities.
Hoffman, D. Marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments: Conceptual foundations. Journal of Marketing, 60 3 , Ifinedo, P. International Journal of Information Management, 36, Katz, E. Uses and gratifications research.
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