analog and digital control system design chen pdf

Analog And Digital Control System Design Chen Pdf

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Empirical and Analytical Methods 1 Control Systems 2 1. Zero-State ResponseTransfer Function 2. Introduction 69 Motors 70 3.

Analog and Digital Control System Design (Chi-Tsong Chen).pdf

Empirical and Analytical Methods 1 Control Systems 2 1. Zero-State ResponseTransfer Function 2. Introduction 69 Motors 70 3. Manipulation of Block Diagrams 94 3. Minimal Realizations 5.

Introduction Choice of a Plant Performance Criteria 6. Introduction Quadratic Systems with a Constant Numerator 7. Stability Test in the Frequency Domain 8. Introduction Implementable Transfer Functions 9. Effect of Dp s on Disturbance Rejection and Robustness Introduction Controllability and Observability Connection of State Feedback and State Estimators Introduction Why Digital Compensators? Discrete-Time State Equations Steady-State Responses of Stable Systems For example, an engineer might be asked to design and install a heat exchanger to control the tem perature and humidity of a large building.

This has been a longstanding problem in engineering, and much relevant data has been collected. From the total volume and geographical location of the building, we can determine the required capacity of the exchanger and then proceed to install the system. If, after installation, the exchanger is found to be insufficiently powerful to control the buildings environment, it can be replaced by a more powerful one.

This approach, which relies heavily on past experience and repeated experimentation, is called the empirical method. Although the empirical method must be carried out by trial and error, it has been used suc cessfully to design many physical systems. The empirical method, however, is inadequate if there is no past experience to draw from or if experimentation is not feasible because of high cost or risk.

For example, the task of sending astronauts to the moon and bringing them back safely could not have been carried out by the empirical method. Similarly, the design of fusion control in nuclear power plants should not be so dealt with. In these cases, the analytical method becomes indispensable. The analytical method, generally con sists of four steps: modeling, setting up mathematical equations, analysis, and design.

The first two steps are closely related. If we use simple mathematics, then the model chosen must be correspondingly simple. If we use sophisticated mathematics, then 1. Modeling is the most critical step in analytical design. If a physical system is incorrectly modeled, subsequent study will be useless.

Once a model is chosen, the rest of the analytical design is essentially a mathematical problem. Repeated experimentation is indispensable in the empirical method.

It is also important in the analytical method. In the former, experiments must be carried out using physical devices, which might be expensive and dangerous. In the latter, how ever, experiments can be carried out using models or mathematical equations. Many computer-aided design packages are available. We may use any of them to simulate the equations on a digital computer, to carry out design, and to test the result on the computer. If the result is not satisfactory, we repeat the design.

Only after a design is found to be satisfactory, will we implement it using physical devices. If the model is adequately chosen, the performance of the implemented system should resemble the performance predicted by analytical design or computer simu lation. However, because of unavoidable inaccuracy in modeling, discrepancies often exist between the performance of the implemented physical system and that predicted by the analytical method.

Therefore, the performance of physical systems can often be improved by fine adjustments or tunings. This is why a physical system often requires lengthy testing after it is implemented, before it is put into actual operation or mass production. In this sense, experience is also important in the analytical method. In the analytical approach, experimentation is needed to set up models, and experience is needed due to the inaccuracy of modeling to improve the performance of actual physical systems.

Thus, experience and experimentation are both used in the empirical and analytical approaches. The major difference between these two approaches is that in the latter, we gain, through modeling, understanding and insight into the structure of systems.

The analytical approach also provides systematic pro cedures for designing systems and reduces the likelihood of designing flawed or disastrous systems. In this text, we study analytical methods in the analysis and design of control systems.

Before giving a formal defini tion, we discuss a number of examples. The satellite dish in the backyard or on the rooftop of a house has become common in recent years.

It is an antenna aimed at a satellite that is stationary with respect to the earth and is used to transmit television or other signals. To increase the number of channels for a television, the dish may be designed to aim at different satellites.

A possible arrangement of such a system is shown in Figure 1. This system can indeed be designed using the empirical method. If it is to be designed using the analytical method, we must first develop a model for the system, as shown in Figure 1. The model actually consists of a number of blocks. Using this model, we can then carry out the design.

A large number of systems can be similarly modeled. For example, the system that aims the antennas shown in Figure 1. These types of systems are called position control systems. There are other types of position control systems. Consider the simplified nu clear power plant shown in Figure 1. The intensity of the reaction inside the reactor and, consequently, the amount of heat generated , is controlled by the vertical po sition of the control rods.

The more deeply the control rods are submerged, the more heat the reactor will generate. There are many other control systems in the nuclear power plant. Maintenance of the boilers water level and maintenance or regulation of the generated voltage at a fixed voltage all call for control systems.

Position control is also needed in the numerical control of machine tools. For example, it is possible to program a machine tool so that it will automatically drill a number of holes, as shown in Figure 1. It will be developed in Chapter 3. The problem is complicated because the load of the driver varies from a full reel to an empty reel. A possible control system to achieve this is shown in Figure 1.

If it is to be designed using the analytical method, we must develop a model, as shown in Figure 1. Velocity control problems also arise in a large number of industrial applications. To grow an optical fiber with a uniform diameter from melted glass, the speed of growth must be properly controlled. The speed of the conveyor in a production line must also be precisely controlled. An error in roller speed of just 0. The velocity of the rotor of the generator in Figure 1.

Velocity control is indeed needed in a wide range of applications. Consider the temperature control of the enclosed chamber shown in Figure 1. This problem, which arises in the temperature control of an oven, a refrigerator, an automobile compartment, a house, or the living quarters of a space shuttle, can certainly be approached by using the empirical method.

If the analytical method is to be used, we must develop a model as shown in Figure 1. We can then use the model to carry out analysis and design. Temperature control is also important in chemical processes. The rate of chem ical reactions often depends on the temperature. If the temperature is not properly controlled, the entire product may become useless. In industrial processes, temper ature, pressure and flow controls are widely used. The desired trajectory is first computed as shown in Figure 1.

The task is then to bring the space shuttle to follow the desired trajectory as closely as possible. The structure of a shuttle is less stable than that of an aircraft, and its landing speed cannot be controlled.

Thus, the landing of a space shuttle is considerably more complicated than that of an aircraft. The landing has been successfully accomplished with the aid of on-board computers and altimeters and of the sensing devices on the ground, as shown in Figure 1. In fact, it can even be achieved automatically, without involving astronauts. This is made possible by the use of an autopilot. Consider the bathroom toilet tank shown in Figure 1. The mechanism is designed to close the valve automatically whenever the water level reaches a preset height.

A sche matic diagram of the system is shown in Figure 1. The float translates the water level into valve position.

Analog and Digital Control System Design: Transfer-Function, State-Space, and Algebraic Methods

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Analog and Digital Control System Design: Transfer-Function, State-Space, and Algebraic Methods C. Chen; Published ; Computer Science. All chapters.


Analog and Digital Control System Design

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analog and digital control system design chi tsong chen

1. Signals and Systems: A Fresh Look

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ГЛАВА 95 Кровь Христа… чаша спасения… Люди сгрудились вокруг бездыханного тела на скамье. Вверху мирно раскачивалась курильница. Халохот, расталкивая людей, двигался по центральному проходу, ища глазами намеченную жертву. Он где-то. Халохот повернулся к алтарю.

Но в сложившейся ситуации никакой опасности в загрузке в ТРАНСТЕКСТ этой программы не было, потому что коммандер точно знал, что это за файл и откуда он появился. - Несмотря на все мое уважение к вам, сэр, - продолжал настаивать Чатрукьян, - мне никогда еще не доводилось слышать о диагностике, в которой использовалась бы мутация… - Коммандер, - перебила его Сьюзан, которая не могла больше ждать.  - Мне действительно нужно… На этот раз ее слова прервал резкий звонок мобильного телефона Стратмора.

ТРАНСТЕКСТ работает пятнадцать часов. Пусть пройдут все двадцать четыре часа - просто чтобы убедиться окончательно. Сьюзан это показалось разумным. Цифровая крепость впервые запустила функцию переменного открытого текста; быть может, ТРАНСТЕКСТ сумеет взломать шифр за двадцать четыре часа. Но честно говоря, она в это уже почти не верила.

Он исходил из самых патриотических соображений, но все пошло вкривь и вкось. Результатом стали смерть и предательство. Теперь начнутся судебные процессы, последуют обвинения, общественное негодование. Он много лет служил своей стране верой и правдой и не может допустить такого конца. Я просто добивался своей цели, - мысленно повторил .

Ndakota… Kadotan… Oktadan… Tandoka… Сьюзан почувствовала, как ноги у нее подкосились. Стратмор прав. Это просто как день.

То, что он увидел, больше напоминало вход в преисподнюю, а не в служебное помещение. Узкая лестница спускалась к платформе, за которой тоже виднелись ступеньки, и все это было окутано красным туманом. Грег Хейл, подойдя к стеклянной перегородке Третьего узла, смотрел, как Чатрукьян спускается по лестнице. С того места, где он стоял, казалось, что голова сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности лишилась тела и осталась лежать на полу шифровалки. А потом медленно скрылась из виду в клубах пара.

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