religion and culture in medieval europe pdf

Religion And Culture In Medieval Europe Pdf

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Christian culture is the cultural practices common to Christianity. There are variations in the application of Christian beliefs in different cultures and traditions.

The Journal of Medieval Religious Cultures has been in continuous publication for over forty years. The journal chiefly publishes peer-reviewed essays on mystical and devotional texts, especially but not exclusively of the Western Middle Ages. In its current form, the journal seeks to expand its areas of focus to include the relationship of medieval religious cultures outside Europe.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in , the Catholic Church became a powerful social and political institution and its influence spread throughout Europe. The contemporary Catholic Church says that it is the continuation of the early Christian community established by Jesus. Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion. In , the struggles of the early church were lessened by the legalization of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine I. In , under Emperor Theodosius I, Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the emperor, which would persist until the fall of the Western Empire, and later with the Eastern Roman Empire until the fall of Constantinople.

The Black Death and Its Impact on the Church and Popular Religion

Religion and technological develo The development of technology in China and Europe increasingly diverged after about This article argues that this divergence can not only be explained by economic variables such as relative prices of fuel and labour. Variations in religious contexts in China and Europe mattered too. Contrary to views of many historians and theologians, however, the key factor cannot be found in differences in beliefs and values in religious traditions. More relevant were differences in the impact of religious institutions and in the role of communications and movements of people related to religious traditions.

It is argued that these aspects of religion contributed to disparities in human capital formation and circulation of knowledge as well as technical innovation between China and Europe that became manifest after Both China and Europe saw long periods of incremental technological change, interspersed with eruptions of more intense innovative activity 1.

The fact that technological breakthrough eventually occurred in Europe and not in China should not lead us to exaggerate differences in the level or direction of technological change in Europe and China before In his famous Science and civilisation in China , Joseph Needham listed a wide range of wooden or bamboo devices with revolving or spinning components, powered by animals, humans or water, which were employed to carry out certain productive functions in agriculture, mining or industry in China before the nineteenth century.

Among these machines were querns, animal-powered grinding mills, hand-driven chain pumps, scoop-wheels moved by humans or animals for lifting water into fields, winches for mine-shafts, human-driven winnowing-fans, water-powered bellows, water-driven multi-spindle spinning frames and vertical two-roller sugar cane crushers powered by animals 2. China and Europe did not profoundly diverge in the orientation of technological change either.

The approach is now slightly different among historians. Technological development in China focused on different sectors than in Europe. What is striking, though, is that they lay more emphasis on changes in the agricultural sector than on innovations in urban industries or in maritime transport.

To establish that Qing China did see technological change, scholars seem to overwhelmingly draw attention to the diffusion of new crops such as sweet potatoes or maize and of new varieties of rice, to the spread of new ways of tilling the soil and to the dissemination of various improvements in cropping systems, fertilizer use or sugar processing techniques 7. In industry, silk production and porcelain manufacture are highlighted as sectors in which China for a long time was more advanced than Europe 8.

On the other hand, the demand for skills of Jesuit missionaries at the Qing court in the eighteenth century suggests that the Chinese could learn something from Europeans as well. Qing emperors valued Jesuits not only for their knowledge of astronomy and mathematics and their expertise in building machines and in making clocks, automata and scientific instruments, but also for their abilities in a wide range of other specialties: they supervised, notably, the founding of cannon, they participated in surveys of the empire, they produced maps, they made oil paintings, they led operations in glass making, they designed fountains, gardens and palaces and they introduced new plants and medicines 9.

Clocks, cannon, the magnetic compass and printing by movable type are perhaps the best-known cases in point, but they are by no means the only ones. Other examples are the multi-spindle spinning machine, which was known in China as early as the fourteenth century but in contrast with Europe was not adopted in cotton spinning 11 , or the vertical two-roller sugar cane crusher, powered by animals, which entered China in the seventeenth century at about the same time as European plantation colonies in the Americas, but did not evolve into the even more productive animal-driven or water-driven three-roller type Technology in use in China and Europe thus could differ more than a survey of technological potential may suggest.

The beginning of modern economic growth is nowadays widely seen as a result of a dramatic shift in energy basis, which allowed an unprecedented rise in energy consumption and a huge increase in productivity.

This change in energy basis, which essentially revolved on a large-scale transition from the use of energy from sources above the surface of the earth such as timber to energy derived from sources stocked below the surface of the earth such as fossil fuels implied a fundamental transformation in the relation between human societies and the natural environment By shifting to this new energy regime from the late eighteenth century onwards, Europe set out on an entirely different path of economic and technological development than China and the rest of the world.

Some historians seek an explanation in proximate causes, such as relative factor prices. Robert Allen, for example, argues that whereas in eighteenth-century Britain the high cost of labour compared to energy was a powerful incentive to substitute fuel for labour, no such stimulus worked in China, because access to fuel was expensive relative to labour However, explanations based on proximate causes do not make clear why technological change in China and Europe differed by sector, or even more importantly, how knowledge was created and where it came from.

To answer such questions, we have to probe into more fundamental factors that affect technological development. One of the underlying factors that needs further scrutiny is the relationship between technology and religion. Rolf Sieferle likewise included religious factors among the relevant circumstances that made the eventual industrial transformation in Europe possible Joseph Needham suggested that especially Daoism, and to a lesser extent Buddhism, offered a highly favourable environment for the development of particular techniques, notably in chemistry, medicine and dietetics.

Forbes, Lynn White, Carl Amery, Ernest Benz and other historians of technology, historians of religion, and theologians have insisted that the beliefs and values of Christianity, especially in Latin Christendom, exerted a significant influence on the development of technology It was easier to manipulate nature once nature supposedly had lost its soul.

Starting with beliefs and values about relations between man and nature, I will next move via the domains of institutions, patterns of communication and movements of people to the field of practices and experiences where the actual technological innovation occurs.

Religious traditions do not consistently offer a particular vision of nature that may explain why humans are more, or less, prepared to exploit the natural environment for their own uses. Latin Christianity in fact did not always and everywhere condone the ruthless domination of nature. The Bible allows a variety of interpretations concerning the way humans should treat the natural world.

Both exploitation and stewardship can be justified with a reference to Holy Scripture. There is no evidence that the Latin Church, or Christians in Western Europe in general, from the Middle Ages onwards only adhered to an interpretation that vindicated an exploitative attitude to nature Derek Bodde distinguished seven approaches to nature in the history of China, ranging from rejection via exploitation, analysis and animistic and moralistic views to a total, mystical union with the natural world.

These approaches were neither mutually exclusive nor solely linked to particular religious traditions Seeking explanations for differences in technological development in variations in religious beliefs and values thus seems to lead to a dead end.

Differences in religious institutions and in patterns of communications and movements of people related to religious traditions were much more important than differences in beliefs and values. These very factors in the course of time contributed to disparities in human capital formation, circulation of knowledge and technical innovation.

In China, the balance between these three forces in the field of technology from the Song period onwards tilted heavily towards the central government. The reduction of the weight of religious institutions was only partly compensated by the expanding share of the role played by markets.

While in Europe, the weight of governments and markets in human capital formation, circulation of knowledge and the creation of new technologies had substantially increased from the High Middle Ages fith-tenth centuries onwards, too, religious organizations, in particular those of the Catholic Church, continued to have a strong impact in all three areas as well.

Under the Song, Buddhist monasteries for example gradually lost the importance as leading centres of education and printing which they enjoyed during much of the Tang period In Latin Christendom, by contrast, monasteries and church building sites, especially between c.

Before , religious institutions in Europe did not only make a much larger contribution to the supply of formal education than state governments, but they continued to be significant suppliers of educational facilities even after secular governments and commercial entrepreneurs entered the field. From the sixteenth century onwards, religious institutions, especially in Spain, Italy, France and other Catholic regions, made a remarkable comeback in elementary, secondary and higher education.

In many places in Europe, they were at the forefront of the development of vocational and technical training. Many teaching posts at the newly-created schools were filled by members of the Society of Jesus. Some of the posts were even established in Jesuit colleges, although the courses could also be attended by external pupils. Jesuits were very active in the spread of nautical knowledge in France The most active organization in this field was the congregation of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, which was founded by Jean-Baptiste de la Salle in There was never a shortage of applicants.

Religious travelling served as a channel for flows of technical knowledge from the High Middle Ages onwards. Aside from the widespread practice of pilgrimage, which had a counterpart in journeys to temple fairs or birthday celebrations of local deities in China, the rise of networks between monastic houses in Europe was especially important.

Filiation relationships between monasteries in the Cluniac and in the Cistercian networks and institutional arrangements for visitation and mutual consultation, facilitated for example the diffusion of innovations in hydraulic technology. In , Saint Bernard of Clairvaux sent a senior monk from his monastery to a new community in Fountains to instruct its members not only in Cistercian customs, but also in architecture and the craft of plumbing Similar institutionalized patterns of knowledge circulation between Buddhist or Daoist monasteries in China does not seem to have existed.

Organizations that battled in the forefront of the educational and missionary campaigns of the Catholic Reformation, such as the Society of Jesus, often were also very active in creating sites for the collection and storage of technical information, such as libraries, gardens, curiosity cabinets, model collections and museums.

Missionary fervour moreover gave a powerful boost to long-distance travel by Europeans, which added massively to the flows of knowledge between Asia, the Americas and Europe. Jesuits transmitted precious information on Chinese technologies such as porcelain-making to Europe and even continued to do so after their Society, under pressure from Catholic states, had been dissolved by the Pope in Before about , religious institutions both in China and in Europe formed a friendly environment for innovations.

The rise of woodblock printing in China from the eighth century onwards, for example, was closely connected with Buddhist monasteries and the reproduction and diffusion of sacred images and texts. Temples were repeatedly rebuilt, refurbished or adorned with pagodas. These temples were affiliated to a senior temple according to a specific hierarchy. Peasants from several villages joined in worshiping societies that built a common temple, devoted to a local deity. Small, rural temples were in turn subordinated to a major temple in a nearby market town, which was often erected by a rich landowner or a merchant.

Temples in China and monasteries in Europe moreover pioneered the development of new techniques in water supply But were these booms in church and temple building in Europe and China of equal importance for informal learning?

The great age of temple-building in China did not last as long as the boom in church-building in Europe. The Chinese building boom by and large came to an end in the middle of the fourteenth century, when the empire was severely shaken by internal conflicts and when the newly established Ming dynasty prevailed and began to clamp down on all manifestations of religious life that did not conform with the newly-propagated cult of the state.

As a result of this stringent unifying policy, the number of Buddhist and Daoist temples and shrines dramatically declined. The building drive of great churches in Europe, by contrast, continued right into the mid-eighteenth century.

The crucial difference was that in China technical innovation to a much greater extent than in Europe took place outside the context of religious institutions.

Technological change under the Ming and Qing became increasingly dependent on the support from the state. Technological development in silk manufacture, salt production in Sichuan, porcelain making in Jingdezhen or water management in the Yangzi Delta, for example, largely took place under the impetus and supervision of public officials and the central government Although great inventors could be honoured with a shrine or a biography, material incentives for individuals to invent new things did not exist.

A market demand for the services of technical experts like architects or engineers hardly emerged. China knew a large number of engineers, but they were mainly active as government employees The expansion of the market economy, the rise of urban noble courts and the growth of patronage by secular governments created a range of opportunities for resourceful technical practitioners and artisans.

Governments introduced incentives for innovation, such as patents, which consisted both of individualized rewards and provisions to benefit the community at large. Religious organizations thus gradually lost ground to other types of actors and institutions. A variety of institutions and actors facilitated or promoted technological innovation, including not only princes, dukes, noblemen, cities, merchants and craft guilds, but also religious orders, bishops and popes.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, religious institutions in Europe contributed much more to innovation than temples or monasteries in China during the same period. And the best example can be found in the heart of Latin Christendom, papal Rome. This vast, religion-inspired urbanist programme ranged all the way from improvement of public utilities and restructuring of public space to the erection of imposing monuments and the construction of glorious residences and magnificent religious buildings.

Legions of craftsmen, artists, architects and engineers, supervised by a steadily growing papal bureaucracy, provided the expanding city with a myriad of new streets, squares, fountains, fortifications, gates, bridges and river embankments Public spaces were adorned with statues and monuments reflecting the bonds between papal Rome, Antiquity and Eternity.

Erecting these structures and artefacts often involved extraordinary and innovative feats of engineering. The city of Rome attracted large numbers of pilgrims and non-religious travellers such as mathematician John Wilkins and architect Inigo Jones from England. An estimated The influence of achievements in Rome extended far into the world. This divergence in technological development cannot only be explained by economic variables such as relative prices of fuel and labour.

Variations in religious contexts in China and Europe mattered as well.

Journal of Medieval Religious Cultures

Sitemap Help Credits. The Norton Anthology of Western Literature. The Western values of individualism, consensual government, and a recognition of religious differences began to emerge during the Middle Ages. People in the Renaissance named the period the Middle Ages because it was considered a culturally empty time that separated the Renaissance from the Classical past, which it admired. The Middle Ages is mistakenly thought of as a culturally homogeneous period, but this period contains many different kinds of people of many different cultures. As the Middle Ages developed, the Catholic Church gradually extended its spiritual and institutional authority across most of Europe. Literature The individual literary masterpieces and traditions of writing that continue to define Western literature emerged during the Middle Ages.

The period we are going to study this week is called the Middle Ages. By this term, historians generally mean to denote the history of Western Europe from the end of the Roman Empire in the west until the Italian Renaissance: roughly, AD. So in its origins, the concept of the Middle Ages frames the period negatively as a time of cultural backwardness, a period in which the accomplishments of classical civilization were eclipsed by ignorance and superstition. This was the view of fifteenth-century elites. Indeed, I will argue to you over the next hour or so that the millennium from to was pivotal in the development of Western Civilization. Moreover, the Middle Ages created institutions and practices that are still vital and important in our world. The most important watershed comes roughly at the millennium.

Religion and technological develo The development of technology in China and Europe increasingly diverged after about This article argues that this divergence can not only be explained by economic variables such as relative prices of fuel and labour. Variations in religious contexts in China and Europe mattered too. Contrary to views of many historians and theologians, however, the key factor cannot be found in differences in beliefs and values in religious traditions. More relevant were differences in the impact of religious institutions and in the role of communications and movements of people related to religious traditions.


ENLIGHTENMENT. Robert Forster: EIGHTEENTH CENTURY EUROPEAN SOCIETY W. Warren Wagar: SCIENCE, FAITH AND MAN. Paul A. Gagnon: opinion, worthwhile introductions to medieval social and cultural history. Some older.


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Starting around the 14th century, European thinkers, writers and artists began to look back and celebrate the art and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. After the fall of Rome, no single state or government united the people who lived on the European continent. Instead, the Catholic Church became the most powerful institution of the medieval period.

This is, by my count, the third collection of articles by Giles Constable published by Variorum; and it is a very welcome addition to the first two. Reprinted here are twelve essays, produced between and Several are easily available from other sources, but some would be harder to track down. One, a lecture on "self-inflicted suffering", delivered to a general audience, appears in print for the first time.

Search this site. Abraham in the Mirror PDF. Aflame PDF. Aix-les-Bains and its environs PDF.

 О мой Бог! - воскликнула Сьюзан.  - Дэвид, ты просто гений. ГЛАВА 121 - Семь минут! - оповестил техник.

Middle Ages

Выпустите меня отсюда. - Ты ранена? - Стратмор положил руку ей на плечо. Она съежилась от этого прикосновения. Он опустил руку и отвернулся, а повернувшись к ней снова, увидел, что она смотрит куда-то поверх его плеча, на стену. Там, в темноте, ярко сияла клавиатура. Стратмор проследил за ее взглядом и нахмурился Он надеялся, что Сьюзан не заметит эту контрольную панель.

 Разница, - бормотал он себе под нос.  - Разница между U235 и U238. Должно быть что-то самое простое. Техник в оперативном штабе начал отсчет: - Пять. Четыре. Три. Эта последняя цифра достигла Севильи в доли секунды.

Стратмор разработал план… и план этот Фонтейн не имел ни малейшего намерения срывать. ГЛАВА 75 Пальцы Стратмора время от времени касались беретты, лежавшей у него на коленях. При мысли о том, что Хейл позволил себе прикоснуться к Сьюзан, кровь закипела в его жилах, но он помнил, что должен сохранять ясную голову, Стратмор с горечью признал, что сам отчасти виноват в случившемся: ведь именно он направил Сьюзан в Третий узел. Однако он умел анализировать свои эмоции и не собирался позволить им отразиться на решении проблемы Цифровой крепости. Он заместитель директора Агентства национальной безопасности, а сегодня все, что он делает, важно, как. Его дыхание стало ровным. - Сьюзан.


The usage of the term feudalism to characterize the early medieval north Indian society is an attempt to classify Indian history according to the European model.


The Catholic Church

Она посмотрела на шефа. - Вы уничтожите этот алгоритм сразу же после того, как мы с ним познакомимся. - Конечно. Так, чтобы не осталось и следа. Сьюзан нахмурилась.

Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус. К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку.

Мужчина рядом нахмурился.

2 comments

Courtland C.

Averroes: Resolving Conflicts between Philosophy and Scripture.

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Hermelando L.

How and why did society in medieval Europe change? Europe's medieval period Christianity became ancient Rome's official religion in the 4th century CE. Most people in Europe then culture and the Celts in Britain. Avars and Slavs.

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