philippine law on obligations and contracts pdf

Philippine Law On Obligations And Contracts Pdf

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Business Law Obligation and Contract: What You Need to Know

An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Meaning of obligation. The term obligation is derived from the Latin word obligatio which means a tying or binding. Our law merely stresses the duty of the debtor or obligor he who has the duty of giving, doing, or not doing when it speaks of obligation as a juridical necessity. Meaning of juridical necessity. Obligation is a juridical necessity because in case of non-compliance, the courts of justice may be called upon to enforce its fulllment or, in default thereof, the economic value that it represents.

In a proper case, 1. In other words, the debtor must comply with his obligation whether he likes it or not; otherwise, his failure will be visited with some harmful or undesirable legal consequences.

If obligations were not made enforceable, then people can disregard them with impunity. If an obligation cannot be enforced, it may be only a natural obligation. Nature of obligations under the Civil Code. Obligations which give to the creditor or obligee a right of action in courts of justice to enforce their performance are known as civil obligations. They are to be distinguished from natural obligations which, not being based on positive law but on equity and natural law, do not grant a right of action to enforce their performance although in case of voluntary fulllment by the debtor, the latter may not recover what has been delivered or rendered by reason thereof.

Natural obligations are discussed under the Title dealing with Natural Obligations. Title III, Arts. Essential requisites of an obligation.

An obligation as dened in Article is constituted upon the concurrence of the four 4 essential elements thereof, namely: 1 A passive subject called debtor or obligor or the person who is bound to the fulllment of the obligation; he who has a duty; 2 An active subject called creditor or obligee or the person who is entitled to demand the fulllment of the obligation; he who has a right; 3 Object or prestation subject matter of the obligation or the conduct required to be observed by the debtor.

It may consist in giving, doing, or not doing. Without the prestation, there is nothing to perform. In bilateral obligations see Art. The tie in an obligation can easily be determined by knowing the source of the obligation.

Here, X is the passive subject, Y is the active subject, the building of the house is the object or prestation, and the agreement or contract, which is the source of the obligation, is the juridical tie. Suppose X had already constructed the house and it was the agreement that Y would pay X after the construction is nished.

X, then, becomes the active subject and Y, the passive subject. Form of obligation. Obligation, right, and wrong cause of action distinguished. In a breach of contract, the contract violated is the subject matter, while the breach thereof by the obligor is the cause of action. The subject matter is the item with respect to which the controversy has arisen or concerning which the wrong has been done, and is ordinarily the right, the thing or the contract under dispute.

Bachrach Corporation vs. Mendiola, SCRA []. Essential elements of cause of action. Barrios, 79 Phil. Peoples Homesite and Housing Corp. San Lorenzo Village Assoc. Evangelista, SCRA 95 []. The presence of a cause of action rests on the sufciency, and not on the veracity, of the allegations in the complaint, which will have to be examined during the trial on the merits. Pioneer International, Ltd. Guadiz, Jr. The test is whether the material allegations of the complaint, assuming to be true, state ultimate facts which constitutes plaintiffs cause of action such that plaintiff is entitled to a favorable judgment as a matter of law.

Rovels Enterprises, Inc. Ocampo, SCRA []. The right of action springs from the cause of action, but does not accrue until all the facts which constitute the cause of action have occurred. Multi-Realty Dev. Makati Tuscany Condominium Corp. Calalo, SCRA 89 []. The action shall be brought in the name of the party who by law is entitled to the right to be enforced. Facts: S and B entered into a contract to sell, whereby B, after making a downpayment, was given the option to pay the balance of the purchase price of a parcel of land.

Later, S rejected the contract to sell even before the arrival of the period for the exercise of said option on the ground that the terms and conditions of the contract are grossly disadvantageous and highly prejudicial to his interest. S sent two 2 checks to B in an apparent effort to return the downpayment. S contends that the complaint was prematurely led because at the time of the institution of the complaint, B has yet to exercise his option under the Option of Buyer clause of the contract.

Issue: Has B a cause of action against S for prematurity? Held: Yes. First, there is a legal right in favor of B, i. The fact that the rejection or cancellation of the contract by S was not made judicially or by notarial act see Art. It is enough for purposes of determining the existence of a cause of action that S has declared in no uncertain terms his refusal to be bound by the contract to sell.

Such declaration, coupled with Ss act of returning Bs down payment, clearly indicates Ss rejection of the contract to sell. Leberman Realty Corporation vs.

Typingco, SCRA []. Cause of action based upon a written contract. Actions based upon a written contract should be brought within 10 years from the time the right of action accrues. The accrual. Accordingly, an action based on a contract accrues only when an actual breach or violation thereof occurs. China Banking Corp. Therefore, the period of prescription commences, not from the date of execution of the contract but from the occurrence of the breach.

The cause of action resulting from breach of contract is dependent on the facts of each particular case. Pilipinas Shell Petroleum Corporation vs. John Bordman Ltd. Nabus vs. Elido vs. Court of Appeals, supra.

Court of Appeals, Phil. Cole vs. Gregorio, Phil. Naga Telephone Co. For example, when fuel oil is delivered in drums, a buyer readily assumes that the agreed volume can be and actually is, contained in those drums.

He is not expected to make a meticulous measurement of each and every delivery. In case of short deliveries, the cause of action will arise only from the discovery of the same with certainty.

John Bordment, Ltd. Injury, damage, and damages distinguished. The words injury, damage, and damages are sometimes used synonymously, although there is a material difference among them. On the other hand, damages denote the sum of money recoverable as amends for the wrongful act or omission; and 2 Injury is the legal wrong to be redressed, while damages are the recompense or compensation awarded or recoverable for the damage or loss suffered.

Custodio vs. Existence of one without the other. There may be injury without damage and damage without injury. A wrongful violation of his legal right is not sufcient to entitle a person to sue another in a court of justice for the enforcement or protection of said right. As a rule, there must be, in addition, loss or damage caused to him by the violation of his right.

But except for actual or compensatory damages Art. One who makes use of his legal right does no injury. Qui jure suo utitur mullum damnum facit. If damage results from a persons exercising his legal rights, it is damnum absque injuria damage without injury. Auyong Hian vs. The plaintiff must establish that the damage to him resulted from a breach or violation of legal duty which the defendant owned to him; otherwise, the consequences must be borne by the plaintiff alone.

In other words, in order that the law will give redress for an act or omission causing damage, that act must be not only hurtful, but wrongful.

Court of Appeals, supra; see Philippine National Bank vs. Facts: X imported certain goods. The Collector of Customs declared the goods forfeited in favor of the government and ordered the sale thereof at public auction. The bid of Y was approved and the goods were awarded to him. Under the law, X has the right to have the decision of the Collector of Customs reviewed by the Commissioner of Customs, and from the decision of the latter, to appeal to the Court of Tax Appeals Secs.

X will be prejudiced if the sale is not set aside.


An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Meaning of obligation. The term obligation is derived from the Latin word obligatio which means a tying or binding. Our law merely stresses the duty of the debtor or obligor he who has the duty of giving, doing, or not doing when it speaks of obligation as a juridical necessity. Meaning of juridical necessity. Obligation is a juridical necessity because in case of non-compliance, the courts of justice may be called upon to enforce its fulllment or, in default thereof, the economic value that it represents.

Business law obligation and contract refers to what is legally required of each of the parties involved in a contractual agreement. The law requires individuals who enter into legal agreements to uphold their end of the contract. In business contracts and other types of contracts, one party has the right to pursue legal action against the other if he or she breaches the agreement. When contractors enter into a legal agreement, they must fulfill the promises they make in the agreement. Anyone unable to perform the duties required of them in a contract should not sign or enter into an agreement.

An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. Obligation is synonymous with duty. According to Arias Ramos, obligation is nothing more than the duty of a person debtor or obligor to satisfy a specific and demandable claim of another person creditor or obligee which if breached is enforced in court. Right is the active aspect credit and obligation is the passive aspect debt. Prestation — Particular conduct of the debtor. It may consist in giving, doing or not doing something. Nature of obligations in Art.

De Leon - Obligation and Contracts

Contracts shall be binding on the parties, and with respect to third Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to do, or not to do.

Именно он и подал ручную команду на отзыв Следопыта. Вопрос насколько. уступил место другому - с какой целью?. У Хейла не было мотивов для вторжения в ее компьютер.

Он посмотрел на дверь с номером 301. Там, за ней, его обратный билет. Остается только заполнить .

Philippines Republic Act 386 (Civil Code)

law on obligations and contracts reviewer

 - Это гостиница. - Нет, сэр. Какой номер вы набираете? - Сеньор Ролдан не потерпит сегодня больше никаких трюков. - 34-62-10, - ответили на другом конце провода. Ролдан нахмурился.

 Знаешь, - сказала она, - Стратмор сидит в шифровалке уже тридцать шесть часов. Может быть, он сражается с вирусом. Джабба захохотал. - Сидит тридцать шесть часов подряд. Бедняга. Наверное, жена сказала ему не возвращаться домой. Я слышал, она его уже достала.

Он часто представлял, как занимается с ней сексом: прижимает ее к овальной поверхности ТРАНСТЕКСТА и берет прямо там, на теплом кафеле черного пола. Но Сьюзан не желала иметь с ним никакого дела. И, что, на взгляд Хейла, было еще хуже, влюбилась в университетского профессора, который к тому же зарабатывал сущие гроши. Очень жаль, если она истратит свой превосходный генетический заряд, произведя потомство от этого выродка, - а ведь могла бы предпочесть его, Грега.

Даже если АНБ расскажет о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, Танкадо им уже ничем не поможет. Стратмор молчал. Положение оказалось куда серьезнее, чем предполагала Сьюзан. Самое шокирующее обстоятельство заключалось в том, что Танкадо дал ситуации зайти слишком .

Civil Code of the Philippines


Miranda P.

The Civil Code of the Philippines is the product of the codification of private law in the Philippines.


Sabine H.

Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith.



This page uses so called "cookies" to improve its service i.


Arienne R.

A type of modality that is very much visible in contracts is the deontic modality.


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