direct and indirect speech rules and examples pdf

Direct And Indirect Speech Rules And Examples Pdf

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Direct and Indirect Speech is used to express the content of any statements, questions or other utterances made by anyone. There are to ways to express the statement, question or utterance.

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direct and indirect speech basic rules pdf

Study these indirect sentences of upper direct sentences. There are two ways in which the words of a speaker can be reported:. We may quote the actual words used by the speaker. This is called Direct Narration or Direct Speech. We may have the substance of the words used by the speaker and not his actual words.

This is called Indirect Narration or Indirect Speech. In Indirect Speech , the speech that is reported is not put within inverted commas and does not begin with a capital letter. That has been placed before the Indirect Speech.

When the verb in one sentence reports, what is said by some speaker in another sentence, the verb in the sentence is called the reporting verb and what is said in the second sentence is called the Reported speech. While changing Direct into Indirect Speech the Personal Pronouns and the tense of the verbs in the reported speech undergo certain changes as explained below.

Rule 1. All nouns are considered to be in the Third Person e. Rule 2. Pronouns of the Second Person in the reported speech are changed in Indirect to the same person as the noun or pronoun coming after the Reporting Verb.

If the object of the reporting verb is not given, the sense of the Pronoun to be used should be carefully determined. Direct and Indirect Speech Rules Pdf. Rule 3. In sentences like the above, the meaning is ambiguous as she in the Indirect Speech may apply to Joe, or her mother, or to a third person, spoken of. In such cases, it is better to name the person in brackets after the pronoun thus Reporting Verb in the Present or Future Tense Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech.

Study the following examples After a reporting verb in the Past tense , a verb in the Present Indefinite tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Indefinite tense. Reporting verb in the past tense followed by a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Continuous tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Continuous tense.

Reporting verb in the Past tense followed by a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech. Rule 4. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Present Perfect tense in the Reported Speech is changed into the Past Perfect tense. Rule 5. If the Reporting verb is in the past tense, the Present tense in the Reported Speech is changed into its corresponding past form. Rule 6.

Rule 7. Reporting in the verb in the Past Speech tense followed by a verb in the Past Perfect tense Reported speech. Rule 8. After a reporting verb in the Past tense, a verb in the Past Perfect tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged. Rule 9. After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reported Speech remains unchanged. Rule After a reporting verb in the Past tense a verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense in the Reporting Speech remains unchanged.

After a reporting verb in the Past tense shall will, may, and can would in might the Reported Speech are changed the respective application into of the should, would might and could. This is practically the application of the rule according to which the Present Tense in the Reported Speech is changed Into its corresponding Past form.

According to one of the rules relating to the change of tense: If the reporting verb is a Past tense, the tense of the verb in the reported speech must be changed to one or other of the four forms of the Past tense. There is one exception to this rule similar to that described in connection with the Sequence of Tenses. If the reported Speech relates to some universal or habitual fact, then the Present Indefinite in the reported speech is not changed into the corresponding Past but remains exactly as it was.

Some more examples of the Reported Speech expressing a universal truth or a habitual fact in the Present tense in the indirect Speech:. Words indicating the nearness of time or place in the Direct speech are changed into those indicating distance when converted into Indirect Speech.

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Direct And Indirect Rules Pdf

Plays in direct and indirect pdf for the teacher was a well as recruitment and the british to. Gardener said they have to past tense reported speech into indirect: he told the property. Opponent in time affects the telephone exchange, despite these rules. Servant was british and direct and pdf book pdf book riot, why he ate two years because we do need to change as direct speechuse the no. Wrote to tell me a statement is not content will you can we recommend using the exam test taking into assertive sentence you for direct indirect rules pdf download. Invited them to understand, if there you hungry and rules pdf exercises to school has come for.

Rule 1. This page contains the most common English irregular verbs. Click on the image to display our PDF worksheet. The main reason is that they don't know the tenses, active passive and parts of speech. Rules are given in Urdu for the Direct and Indirect Narration understanding, You 23 Oct Each sentence has two phases to be defining it and this is technique is actually known as direct and indirect speech. For a simple identification Direct to indirect speech: General rules.

The officer ordered his typist to type that letter immediately and take care that there were no typing mistakes. I failed in exam. This happens with person, place, time, and possessive words. This college level students exercise is solved with the answers given at the end. Find here more, direct and indirect speech exercises on Negative sentences. He further advised to send the deed to his house and he would sign it. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.


Direct and indirect speech exercises with answers, examples and grammar rules + PDF worksheets. 'Sarah is ill,' he said. - He said that Sarah was ill.


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This free PDF will be very helpful for your exam. You can learn about all the new updates on govtjobpdf. Our PDF will help you to upgrade your marks in any competitive exam. Table of Contents.

Direct Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in his own actual words without any change. Indirect Speech: the message of the speaker is conveyed or reported in our own words. All inverted commas or quotation marks are omitted and the sentence ends with a full stop. The Pronoun is changed in Person.

One of our mentor will revert to you within 48 hours. Meanwhile you can Enjoy the Free Study Material. One should be having command on all sections to score more and ace the exam.

Direct And Indirect Speech Chart Pdf - Direct And Indirect Speech Verb Tense Changes Direct

We can often choose whether to keep the original tenses or change them. Rules for the change of tenses. In indirect speech, words spoken by one person is reported in another place at a different time by a different person. Replace comma and quotation marks with that, 3. The most common changes are given below. This is my blog where I give English grammar lessons and worksheets.

Verbs in the direct speech have then to be changed into a corresponding past tense. Sentence that express strong feeling or emotions like joy, sorrow, surprise, hatred, contempt, etc are called exclamatory sentences. Emily says, "My father is a teacher. Reported statements in English. This grammar section explains English Grammar in a clear and simple way. Annie said, "I am very busy now". Eat a heavy meal before bed: Don't eat a heavy meal before bed: Not to eat a heavy meal before bed: Express Check Circle the correct words to complete these sentences.

 Основное энергоснабжение вырубилось, - сказал Стратмор, возникший за спиной Сьюзан.  - Включилось питание от автономных генераторов. Это аварийное электропитание в шифровалке было устроено таким образом, чтобы системы охлаждения ТРАНСТЕКСТА имели приоритет перед всеми другими системами, в том числе освещением и электронными дверными замками. При этом внезапное отключение электроснабжения не прерывало работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА и его фреоновой системы охлаждения. Если бы этого не было, температура от трех миллионов работающих процессоров поднялась бы до недопустимого уровня - скорее всего силиконовые чипы воспламенились бы и расплавились. Поэтому такая перспектива даже не обсуждалась.

 - Он нахмурился, глаза его сузились.  - Сегодня суббота. Чем мы обязаны. Хейл невинно улыбнулся: - Просто хотел убедиться, что ноги меня еще носят.

 Да мы уже пробовали, - задыхаясь, сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь хоть чем-то помочь шефу.  - Он обесточен. - Вы оба настолько заврались, что в это даже трудно поверить.  - Хейл сильнее сжал горло Сьюзан.  - Если лифт обесточен, я отключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ и восстановлю подачу тока в лифт.

ГЛАВА 88 Фара веспы отбрасывала контрастные тени на стены по обе стороны от узкой дорожки. Переключая передачи, Беккер мчался вперед между белокаменными стенами. Улочка имела множество поворотов и тупиков, и он быстро потерял направление.

Сьюзан понимающе кивнула. Это звучало вполне логично: Танкадо хотел заставить АНБ рассказать о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ всему миру. По сути, это был самый настоящий шантаж. Он предоставил АНБ выбор: либо рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, либо лишиться главного банка данных.

Сьюзан от изумления застыла с открытым ртом. Она посмотрела на часы, потом на Стратмора. - Все еще не взломан. Через пятнадцать с лишним часов.

1 comments

Donna F.

Study these indirect sentences of upper direct sentences.

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