power generation and transmission in pakistan pdf

Power Generation And Transmission In Pakistan Pdf

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Back to Asia Pacific Regional Forum publications. The MoF also notes that the severe energy crisis which had gripped Pakistan over the past decade or so is being overcome. In both cases our firm has been at the forefront of these ground-breaking developments.

Electricity sector in Pakistan

This article gives a short overview of the energy situation in Pakistan. It outlines the main sources of energy and states the main problems for the energy sector regarding micro hydropower, solar energy products and cooking technologies for energy access. Furthermore, the institutional set-up, the policy framework and international programmes regarding energy access are portrayed. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan which became an independent state in is governed by a federal parliamentary constitution.

It is globally the sixth most populous country with a population of approximately According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potentials.

Its labour market is the 10 th largest globally and Pakistan is number 67 amongst the global exporters. The government is supporting the use of LPG for cooking resulting in rapid investment in production, storage and establishment of auto stations of LPG. During the FY , the regulatory body OGRA has issued 12 licenses for operational marketing of storage and filling plants, 37 licenses for construction of LPG storage and filling plants, 20 licenses for Construction of LPG auto-refuelling stations and one license for storage and refuelling of LPG was issued.

Further, one license for construction of production and storage of LPG facility is also issued by OGRA which shall result in improving supply and distribution of LPG as well as create job opportunities in the sector.

Historically, Pakistan has always been an energy importer and is highly dependent on fossil fuels. The rising oil price along, withe the rising demand for uninterrupted power, is creating additional pressure on the already fragile electricity grid of Pakistan. About USD 2. Total installed power capacity stood at 26 GW at year-end , of which 4. Pakistan is blessed with a high potential of renewable energy resources, but so far, only large hydroelectric projects and few wind and solar projects have harnessed this potential.

Renewable Energy accounts for MW presently installed capacity of solar PV, wind and biomass based power projects. Possibilities also exist in promoting greater use of wind, solar and biomass project. Taking the market growth, technological developments, recent cost reductions and new financial mechanisms into account, the GoP decided to liberate the market and instigate more competition amongst the private sector players for delivering electricity from RE resources i. Pakistan has a potential for wind energy specially in the southern coast and coastal Balochistan.

The solar potential is estimated to be over , MW. Irradiation across the country is around 4. Out of the total area of Forests cover 4. Approximately 50, tonnes of solid waste, , tonnes of crop residue and over 1 million tonnes of animal manure are produced daily.

It is estimated that potential production of biogas from livestock residues is 8. Large sugar industry in Pakistan also generates electricity from biomass energy for utilization in sugar mills. In the present electricity crisis recently government allowed sugar mills to supply their surplus power up to a limit of MW to the national grid. It is estimated that sugarcane bagasse can potentially be used to generate MW of electric power.

However presently it is difficult to obtain more electricity from sugar mills due to grid limitations because most of the sugar mills are located in remote rural areas which are not even connected to the national grid. Integration of electricity generated from biomass energy to the national grid can ease the electricity shortage in the country. Many use the forests in unsustainable ways to satisfy their domestic energy needs.

Therefore, forest depletion and degradation are a major challenge. The Sugar industry has the highest utilization of biomass, with every singly sugar mill being equipped with a biomass boiler for the production of electricity. Some even incorporate high pressure boilers to increase efficiencies.

Large Hydropower has proved to be the cheapest source of electricity. Despite the high availability of hydro power resources low investments in this sector hamper the utilization of this potential source. Smaller less than 50 MW sites are available throughout the country.

The micro - hydropower sector has been relatively well established yet. Since the mids micro-hydro power plants supply electricity to some 40, rural families. Most of the plants are community-based and situated in the Northern Areas and Chitral. Provincial governments mainly handled the small hydropower sector: in , MW has been operational in the country, MW is under installation and around MW is available for further development.

Even those households that are statistically connected experience daily blackouts so that it is estimated that more than million people across the country do not have reliable access to electricity.

As a result, Pakistani households use a mix of technologies to power their homes and businesses. Common cooking fuels include firewood, agricultural waste and dung cakes. According to a study about Balochistan and Sindh region in April , it was appraised that households use on average kg of wood in winter and kg of wood in summer while in Sindh the numbers are kg and kg respectively.

In Balochistan, around half of the population collects their own firewood, while in Sindh most households need to buy their wood. The burning of biomass in inefficient stoves and without proper venting or air exhaust causes serious health problems. According to WHO estimates indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50, premature death per year in Pakistan.

Especially women and children are affected as they are most exposed to the smoke and soot from cooking. Due to poor distribution networks, households in rural areas using LPG as fuel pay up to 10 times more than urban households that benefit from subsidised natural gas for residential use.

The main factors which are preventing the rollout of rural electrification are the increasingly high distribution costs and the shortage of power generation which results in breakouts as well as load shedding.

Figure 4: Electricity access in Pakistan, and Traditional use of biomass for cooking - Population relying on traditional use of biomass. Percentage of population relying on traditional use of biomass. The demand for electricity in Pakistan has increased dramatically within the last 5 years. Over half of this demand originates from the Punjab province where the majority of the population resides. Households are mainly responsible the increase of demand.

The high demand of industry and local entrepreneurs in turn cannot be met either. The recent rise in demand is, in part, due to the large-scale instalment of cooling and air-conditioning systems, particularly in urban areas. As a result, the demand is especially high in the summer months.

Therefore, many businesses and industries, as well as private households, have resorted to installing diesel generators as back-up which has led to a substantial increase in the cost of electricity in cities across Pakistan.

Overall Pakistan is struggling with a large gap between electricity supply and a demand of about 5 GW. As a result, power generation companies face serious financial problems, making investments in the sector very difficult. In , government subsidies for electricity reached 1. The growth of power generation capacities is slow. The declining availability of natural gas in Pakistan often results that existing power plants operating below capacity.

As a result of the insufficient power supply, the unused capacities, and the power losses, Pakistan is facing serious power blackouts on average hours a day.

Figure 5: Number of people using solid biomass for cooking. The electricity market of Pakistan in unbundled at the generation and distribution but is bundled at the Transmission point. Distribution: Electricity distribution is handled by 10 distribution companies discos. General government institutions in the electricity sector are: [5]. It was established in May with the main objective to facilitate, promote and encourage development policies, programs and projects of Renewable Energy in Pakistan and with a mission to introduce Alternative and Renewable Energies AREs at an accelerated rate.

Thus, AEDB has been the main national actor in defining quality standards for photovoltaic systems. In addition, it is surveying commercial application and investments in power generation, and it assists the private and NGO sector in planning and implementing renewable energy projects. Last but not the least, it conducts feasibility studies and undertakes technical, financial and economic evaluations.

Under the remote village electrification program, AEDB has been directed to electrify 7, remote villages in Sindh and Balochistan provinces through ARE technologies. The Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund PPAF was established as an autonomous institution with the main goal to alleviate poverty through empowering poor people and increasing their access to income and job opportunities, ensuring a focus on the most vulnerable and marginalized groups.

The fields of activities include health, education, basic infrastructure — including rural electrification — small scale renewable energies PV-sets and biogas digesters and micro-finance. Energy access has not been its main task but PPAF has financed many stand-alone solar PV solutions on the southern side of the country and mini-grids based on mini and micro-hydro plants in the northern areas. In addition, PPAF conducted various trainings of communities affected by disaster, including among other sustainable procedures smokeless fuel-efficient cooking.

PPAF employs more than people. However, the renewable energy department comprises only few experts. PPAF may undergo a major institutional restructuring. The PPAF would then concentrate its activities on providing grants for poverty alleviation projects. Five companies locally assemble PV panels.

However, they currently still have lower reliabilities and are generally not as trusted as foreign brand. Local manufacturing of batteries is also expected to commence soon in Pakistan. Factories are currently being setup by four different industrial groups in the city of Karachi. These companies are: [14].

Solar companies are organised in the Pakistan Solar Association , which supports trade and promotes PV businesses in the country.

Several microfinance institutions are offering loans to enterprises and households for purchasing renewable energy technologies. The most important are:. Most important are: [14]. In some regions of Pakistan, the Aga Khan Foundation is playing a major role in development activities.

BACIP focused on eight thermally efficient appliances that help to improve quality of lives in remote areas while saving , tons of CO2 annually. Until , the programme has produced over 50, fuel-efficient products including ICS, number unknown , which have been installed in 27, households. The programme has benefitted , people in over villages of the Gilgit-Baltistan and Chitral provinces in northern Pakistan.

Government of Pakistan and provincial governments are aware of the need to improve the energy situation in the country through various policies and projects. In this regard, relevant organizations have been developing and implementing policies from time to time to bring clarity to their future approach towards the energy crisis situation in the country.

Energy Resource Guide - Pakistan - Renewable Energy

This article gives a short overview of the energy situation in Pakistan. It outlines the main sources of energy and states the main problems for the energy sector regarding micro hydropower, solar energy products and cooking technologies for energy access. Furthermore, the institutional set-up, the policy framework and international programmes regarding energy access are portrayed. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan which became an independent state in is governed by a federal parliamentary constitution. It is globally the sixth most populous country with a population of approximately According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potentials.

Pakistan is a developing country and it can only move forward once the energy sector is secure and self sufficient. Right from the beginning, the country has constantly faced energy shortages in all sectors due to incompetent policies and governence. This study frames the analysis of the current energy situation, with main focus on electricity. All the factors which are hampering the growth of the energy sector are identified and potential solutions are discussed. Matching the electricity supply and demand is the ultimate goal, therefore a forecast analysis multiple regression model based on seasonal variation in temperature is performed in order to predict the future electric consumption and help authorities take necessary actions for fulfilment. Finally, a comprehensive detail is provided on the causes and problems of the energy crisis, and potential solutions and reforms are provided. First of all I will thank the Almighty for helping me come this far and paving the way ahead of me.

Transmission and distribution refers to the different stages of carrying electricity over poles and wires from generators to a home or a business. The primary distinction between the two is the voltage level at which electricity moves in each stage. After electricity has been generated, a system of electrical wires carries the electricity from the source of generation to our homes and businesses. It refers to the part of electricity delivery that moves bulk electricity from the generation sites over long distances to substations closer to areas of demand for electricity. Transmission lines move large amounts of power at a high voltage level — a level that is too much to be delivered directly to a home or business. Explore the history and value of the transmission system. In most cases, the power moving through the transmission system must be reduced to lower voltage levels by electricity distributors before it can be delivered to a residence or business.

Pakistan is among some countries which has a lot of potential to produce electricity. plants. Annual production data of different power plants and their generation history is also Table Transmission lines development since [11] ccofmc.org%​ccofmc.org

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Electricity has to be transmitted from large power plants to the consumers via extensive networks. The transmission over long distances creates power losses. The major part of the energy losses comes from Joule effect in transformers and power lines. The energy is lost as heat in the conductors. This must not be mixed up with the efficiency of power plants like nuclear, coal-fired or natural gas turbine.

Energy and Electricity in Pakistan. Evaluation of infrastructure and consumption forecast

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Thus, to reduce its reliance on imported fuel, the government is looking to explore cheap indigenous sources of energy, particularly coal. International observers and commentators also assert that CPEC would enable Pakistan to get rid of the energy shortfall. According to Kugelman , p. As mentioned earlier, capitalizing on indigenous energy resources could enable Pakistan to reduce overall dependence on imported oil from the Middle East which costs heavily to national kitty. There are a total of 19 projects in the energy sector consisting of building new power plants as well as upgrading transmission lines keeping in view future energy demand. Although a cheap source of energy production, coal-based energy plants have severe environmental implications. In her book, Economy asserts that while China has made tremendous progress in terms of economic development over the last few decades, it also has detrimental impact on the environment largely on account of unprecedented coal-based energy production.

Electricity in Pakistan is generated , transmitted , distributed, and retail supplied by two vertically integrated public sector companies, Water and Power Development Authority WAPDA for all of Pakistan except Karachi , and the Karachi Electric K-Electric for the city of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around 42 independent power producers IPPs that contribute significantly in electricity generation in Pakistan. Pakistan electricity sector is a developing market. For years, the matter of balancing the country's supply against the demand for electricity had remained a largely unresolved matter. The country faced significant challenges in revamping its network responsible for the supply of electricity. Electricity generators were seeking a parity in returns for both domestic and foreign investors indicating it to be one of the key issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country was facing growing shortages.

 Что ты говоришь. Расскажи это Чатрукьяну. Стратмор подошел ближе. - Чатрукьян мертв. - Да неужели. Ты сам его и убил.

Фил физически ощущал, что времени остается все меньше. Он знал: все уверены, что он ушел.

КОМИНТ засек лишь исходящую почту. В данный момент мы ничего не знаем про Северную Дакоту, кроме анонимного адреса. - Возможно, это приманка, - предположила Сьюзан. Стратмор вскинул брови.

 - Отключение вручную займет минут тридцать. Фонтейн по-прежнему смотрел на ВР, перебирая в уме остающиеся возможности. - Директор! - взорвался Джабба.

Разница равна трем. Он медленно потянул к себе микрофон. В то же самое мгновение Сьюзан опять бросила взгляд на руку Танкадо, на этот раз посмотрев не на кольцо… не на гравировку на золоте, а на… его пальцы.

Как он и подозревал, надпись была сделана не по-английски. Беккер долго вглядывался в текст и хмурил брови. И ради этого стоило убивать. Когда Беккер наконец вышел из Гиральды в Апельсиновый сад, утреннее солнце уже нещадно пекло. Боль в боку немного утихла, да и глаза как будто обрели прежнюю зоркость.

На что же уходит такая уйма времени. - спросил он, обращаясь в пустоту и чувствуя, как покрывается. Наверное, придется потревожить этой новостью Стратмора.

How big are Power line losses?


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