History And Philosophy Of Psychology Chung Pdf Writer
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Abstract: In , based on a questionnaire survey of luminaries from all over the world, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO put together an expert commission to study the philosophical foundations of human rights. He introduced traditional Chinese human rights concepts and proposed that every person in the world enjoys the rights to subsistence the right to live , self-expression and happiness the right to enjoyment.
Theory of mind
Abstract: In , based on a questionnaire survey of luminaries from all over the world, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO put together an expert commission to study the philosophical foundations of human rights. He introduced traditional Chinese human rights concepts and proposed that every person in the world enjoys the rights to subsistence the right to live , self-expression and happiness the right to enjoyment. In recent years, Chinese human rights scholars have begun to pay attention to Chinese contributions to the global human rights cause during its infancy, mainly to Peng Chun Chang Zhang Pengchun and his contributions.
Lo participated in historically significant research on human rights philosophy carried out by the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO , where he played an important role in bringing international attention to traditional Chinese views on human rights, making his human rights phi-losophy worthy of exploration and attention.
Lo Chungshu, courtesy name Guanzhi, otherwise known as Zhidao, studied in Nanchong, Guizhong and Chengdu as a teenager. In , Lo enrolled in the West China University in Chengdu and served as executive chairman of the student union. From to , Lo visited Oxford University in England, during which he not only studied Chinese and Western philosophy and introduced Chinese culture to the West, but also travelled extensively in Europe and met a number of world-renowned scholars.
Later on, Lo would also teach English classes at the university. Later, he taught classes to international students at Sichuan Normal University in addition to accepting an appointment as an adjunct professor at the Population Research Institute at Sichuan University. Lo died in Chengdu in April at the age of Chinese academia has paid much attention to Lo Chung-shu, where his views on and contributions to liberalism including academic freedom during the Republican Period, 4 the link between education and peace, 5 and research into cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries 6 have been discussed.
As an academic researcher, Lo was mainly active in the fields of philosophy, psychology and demography. He contributed only one known paper to human rights research, which was written during his tenure as a philosophy consultant to UNESCO as part of the human rights research he undertook for the organization. Hence, in order to understand the era in which Lo contributed toward human rights research, it is necessary to first explore the background, process and impact of UNESCO human rights research.
Havet also proposed that a drafting committee be established to study the written replies received and formulate a plan to be submitted to the UN Human Rights Commission. There were also six replies from socialist countries, including the Soviet Union.
The expert committee was composed of eight members: E. Seven of the eight members were Western intellectuals. Lo Chung-shu, a philosophy professor, was the only non-Western member of the Committee. The expert committee met in Paris from June 26 to July 2, to study the 44 replies that had then found their way to the committee. It is possible that the Commission believed that they had adequately discussed these topics 16 or felt that UNESCO had overreached by intervening in the drafting of the Declaration.
In addition to Carr, Somerhausen, McKeen, Laski and Lo, who were members of the expert committee, authors of the 31 replies or articles include Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the Indian national liberation movement, Benedetto Croce, an Italian historian, Teilhardde Chardin, a French philosopher and theologian, Quincy Wright, an American scholar of international relations, John Somerville and F.
On the one hand, the United Nations has taken the lead in formulating many human rights provisions, which have been accepted by nearly every country. On the other hand, controversies remain as to the expression of the theories behind these rules and how they should be implemented in different, country-specific situations, which are extremely diverse.
Of particular significance is the fact that economic and social rights, including the right to live, the right to the promotion of health, the right to work, the right to maintenance and the right to education, are listed at the forefront of the report, in stark contrast to the Declaration itself, which first defined civil and political rights before going on to list economic, social and cul-tural rights. The chapter also quotes arguments made by several non-Westerners including Lo to support the universality of human rights.
In her conclusion, Glandon says that UNESCO research proved that the core content of the basic principles have been widely recognized even in those cultures that have not yet adopted human rights instruments or their discourse, which indicates that cultural pluralism has been over-exaggerated with respect to the fundamental human. No one has yet proposed amendments to those answers that UNESCO provided regarding universal conceptions of human rights.
The article was not long approximately 2, characters when translated into Chinese — see the appendix for full text, given that UNESCO requested that answers to its questionnaire be between 2, and 4, words. However, the essay was significant both to UNESCO research and in communicating traditional Chinese views of human rights to the world. Neither did such research have much impact on the early days of the international human rights cause as represented by the drafting and adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
This can be seen from the fact that there were no Chinese contributions to the proposals and suggestions sent to the UN Commission on Human Rights regarding the drafting of a declaration of human rights. The first aspect has garnered more attention. It is said that Lo once wrote to George Marshall, then US Secretary of State, saying that he believed in the need for a universal declaration of human rights. Lo also believed that the foundation of such a declaration would lie upon those basic claims from which all peoples may infer contemporary human rights, i.
Instead, he proposed rights that applied to every person, i. Moreover, these universal rights of the individual also have a basis in the Chinese tradition. When the root is firm, the country will be at peace. From the perspective of modern human rights, the lack of individual subjectivity is the main reason for this contradiction of the truth and reality of Chinese history.
Although he stressed the rights of the individual, Lo did not neglect individual obligations. Out of the 30 articles of the Declaration, Articles 1 to 28 stipulate rights. Zhang took the initiative in proposing that provisions regarding personal duties to society be listed at the end, instead of the beginning, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The recognition of this relationship is not only in line with Chinese traditions of emphasizing the mutual duties individuals owe to one another, as espoused by Lo, but also in line with a fundamental Marxist principle, that only in the community can individuals obtain the means to develop their talents in an all-round way; that is to say, only in the community can there be individual freedom There is also one aspect of the Chinese human rights tradition proposed by Lo that is consistent with modern perspectives regarding human rights.
To support his argument, he quoted the replacement of the Xia Dynasty by the Shang Dynasty, and the replacement of the Shang by the Zhou Dynasty as well as ideas contained in the Book of History to argue that it is a long-standing, self-evident right of the people to resist and overthrow tyrants, 35 a prop-osition that came to be reflected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. These concepts differ substantially from modern references to modern human rights, as represented by the Declaration.
These wordings are absent even from international human rights instruments. He expended only words on this topic, which seems somewhat lacking.
Although the UN Charter, adopted in , provides for the right of self-determination in Section 2, Article 1 and in Article 55 , one of the major flaws of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is that it fails to make reference to the right of self-determination.
This right, only officially espoused in human rights treaties, was realized only after the adoption, in , of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in the first articles of both covenants. Hence, the right to enjoyment touches on several aspects, including leisure, culture and religion. In itself, the right to enjoyment already encompasses many of the rights that would be later come to be included in international human rights instruments, such as the right to rest and leisure contained in Article 24 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 7 T of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the cultural rights contained in Article 27 of the Declaration and Article 15 of the Covenant, the right to religious freedom contained in Article 18 of the Declaration and Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, as well as the right to education contained in Article 26 of the Declaration and Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
First, traditional Chinese views of human rights may differ from classical Western perspectives, but they are aligned with modern universal human rights provisions and principles, as represented by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This shows that in the study of human rights, there is no need to be caught up in the differences between Chinese and Western views on human rights.
Before considering the general principles of rights, I would like to point out that the problem of human rights was seldom discussed by Chinese thinkers of the past, at least in the same way as it was in the West. There was no open declaration of human rights in China, either by individual thinkers or by political constitutions, until this conception was introduced from the West.
In fact, the early translators of Western political philosophy found it difficult to arrive at a Chinese equivalent for the term "rights". This of course does not mean that the Chinese never claimed human rights or enjoyed the basic rights of man.
In fact, the idea of human rights developed very early in China, and the right of the people to safeguard themselves from oppressive rulers was established very early on. Heaven is compassionate toward the people. What the people desire, Heaven will be found to bring about. In loving his people, the ruler follows the will of Heaven. When the last ruler Chieh BC of the Hsia Dynasty BC was cruel and oppressive to his people, and became a tyrant, Tang started a revolution and overthrew the Hsia Dynasty.
He felt it was his duty to follow the call of Heaven, which meant obeying exactly the will of the people to dethrone the bad ruler and to establish the new dynasty of Shang BC.
When the last ruler of this dynasty Tsou Zhou became a tyrant and even exceeded in wickedness the last ruler Chieh Jie of the former dynasty, he was executed in a revolution led by King Wu in BC who founded the Chou Dynasty, which in turn lasted over years BC. The right to revolt was repeatedly expressed in Chinese history, which consisted of a sequence of setting up and overthrowing dynasties. A great Confucianist, Mencius BC , strongly maintained that a government should work for the Will of the people.
The state is of less importance. The sovereign is of least importance. The idea of mutual obli-gations is regarded as the fundamental teaching of Confucianism. The five basic social relations described by Confucius and his followers are the relations between 1 ruler and subjects; 2 parents and children; 9 husband and wife; 4 elder and younger brother, and 5 friend and friend. By the fulfilment of mutual obligations, the infringement of the rights of the individual could be prevented.
It was the ruling class, or would-be ruling class, who were constantly taught to look upon the interests of the people as the primary responsibility of the government. The sovereign as well as the officials were taught to regard themselves as the parents or guardians of the people, and to protect their people as they would their own children. If it was not always the practice of actual politics, it was at least the basic principle of Chinese political thought.
The weakness of this doctrine is that the welfare of the people depends so much on the goodwill of the ruling class, who are much inclined to fail in their duties and to exploit the people. This explains the constant revolutions in Chinese history. It is, however, interesting to compare the different approach to the problem of human rights by the Chinese with the theories of human rights developed in the West by thinkers of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Let me state now what I regard to be the basic claims, the principles, from which all human rights may be derived for all the people of the Modern World.
A declaration on the Rights of Man for the entire world should be brief yet clear, broad yet concise, fundamental yet elastic, so that it may be interpreted to suit the needs of peoples in different circumstances.
For this reason, I lay down here only three basic claims, valid for every person in the world, namely: 1 the right to live, 2 the right to self-expression and 3 the right to enjoyment.
The right to live seems to be such a natural thing, yet it is neither properly recognized nor universally enjoyed by all people. The world is big enough for everybody to live in, yet many are deprived of a proper dwelling place. The natural resources of the earth, used according to the scientific knowledge at our disposal, should provide plentifully for all the people to live comfortably, yet natural resources are wasted in many ways and are not made accessible to all those to need them.
Each individual should be allowed to have his proper share in society as well as to make his proper contribution to it, and no individual should be allowed to have more than his share or to live idly at the expense of others.
We want not only to live, but also to live with the sense of dignity and self-reliance. We are social beings. Each individual naturally considers that he has a proper place in society.
In order to contribute fully to the society, each individual should have the fullest degree of self-expression. Social progress depends on each individual's freedom of expression. The right of national groups to self-determination is also a form of self-expression. Our life should be not only materially adequate and socially free but also inwardly enjoyable. That there is an inner aspect of life is undeniable. The mental satisfaction of the inner life leads to peace of mind, and the peace of mind of the individual is a necessary condition of the peace of the world.
The elementary right to enjoyment is to a life free from drudgery; it means that each should bare an adequate amount of leisure and also be able to make good use of that leisure. No one should be constantly overweighed either by work or by social activities. He should have the opportunity to refresh himself and enjoy life. Other ferns of enjoyment are aesthetic, intellectual, cultural and religious. Although not everyone can find enjoyment in the mystical experiences of religion, religion is a form of enjoyment for the inner life of many, which should not be repudiated by alleging it to be mere superstition.
The Origins of Psychology
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Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. Both the Daode Jing and the Zhuangzi are composite texts written and rewritten over centuries with varied input from multiple anonymous writers. Each has a distinctive rhetorical style, the Daode Jing terse and poetic, the Zhuangzi prolix, funny, elusive and filled with fantasy dialogues. Both texts flow from reflections on the nature of dao way and related concepts that were central to the ethical disputes of Ancient China. The texts share some figurative expressions and themes, an ironic detachment from the first order moral issues so hotly debated by the Mohists and Confucians preferring a reflective, metaethical focus on the nature and development of ways. Their metaethics vaguely favored different first-order normative theories anarchism, pluralism, laissez faire government.
Theory of mind ToM is a popular term from the field of psychology as an assessment of an individual human's degree of capacity for empathy and understanding of others. ToM is one of the patterns of behavior that is typically exhibited by the minds of both neurotypical and atypical source:  people, that being the ability to attribute—to another or oneself—mental states such as beliefs , intents , desires , emotions and knowledge. Theory of mind as a personal capability is the understanding that others have beliefs , desires , intentions , and perspectives that are different from one's own. Possessing a functional theory of mind is considered crucial for success in everyday human social interactions and is used when analyzing , judging , and inferring others' behaviors.
Confucianism Persons. Neo Confucianism.
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