Mobile Phone Radiation And Health Pdf
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Metrics details. The number of people, who complain of various symptoms such as headache, dizziness, and fatigue, has also increased.
What has epidemiologic research shown about the association between cell phone use and cancer risk? The NCI fact sheet Electromagnetic Fields and Cancer includes information on wireless local area networks commonly known as Wi-Fi , cell phone base stations, and cordless telephones. Radiofrequency radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation can be categorized into two types: ionizing e.
Mobile phones and your health
If a credible risk is detected, the FDA will work closely with other federal partners to mitigate the risk. The gold standard for the assessment of risk to public health remains the data and information that is available from studying effects on humans.
As part of ongoing monitoring activities, the FDA analyzes published epidemiological studies for specific outcomes including brain and other tumors as well as for any evidence of other adverse events. No clear and consistent pattern has emerged from epidemiological studies.
Based on the evaluation of the currently available information, the FDA believes that the weight of the scientific evidence does not support an increase in health risks from radio frequency exposure from cell phone use at or below the radio frequency exposure limits set by the FCC. The SEER data show that brain cancer rates are not increasing in the United States despite the significant increase in the number of cell phone users.
Ascribing changes in population-based health related outcomes to single causes is always challenging. As a highly relevant example, data from the SEER database for brain and other nervous system cancer incidence rates shows that, from to , the rate of such cancers has gone down from a rate of 6. NCI also estimates that from to , the rate of such tumors has been dropping by approximately 0. The NCI data clearly demonstrate no widespread rise in brain and other nervous system cancers in the last nearly three decades despite the enormous increase in cell phone use during this period.
The Pew Research Center estimates that from to , the percentage of the population owning a cell phone or smartphone has risen from 62 percent to 96 percent, and yet there is a small decrease in brain and other nervous tissue cancer rates. Published in vivo studies have yielded no clear evidence that radio frequency energy exposure at levels experienced by the public from cell phone use leads to tumorigenesis.
Over the last decade or so, many scientific articles have been published on the effects of radio frequency energy on animals. None of these articles have produced convincing evidence that localized exposure of radio frequency radiation RFR at levels that would be encountered by cell phone users can lead to health problems.
Although some researchers have reported adverse biological changes associated with RF energy, these studies have not been replicated. Most published studies have failed to show an association between exposure to RF energy from a cell phone and health problems.
In vivo animal studies assessing possible adverse or other effects of radio frequency energy are extremely challenging studies to design and undertake due to numerous confounding factors. The methodological flaws and weaknesses in many radio frequency energy exposure studies include:. In addition, the results from studies on whole-body exposures are not comparable to real world local exposures as occurs with cell phone use.
By contrast, in a local exposure, blood flow cools the area of exposure. The studies were conducted with high power levels of RFR over the whole body of experimental rodents. The radio frequency energy was delivered in intervals of 10 minutes on and 10 minutes off for 18 hours and 20 minutes a day, every day for 2 years. The design did not reflect the partial-body radio frequency exposure people receive from cell phone use and as noted by the NTP in their February press release :.
So, these findings should not be directly extrapolated to human cell phone usage. This classification is an indication that more research is probably justified. The IARC classification was based on limited evidence in humans which were from a few case-control epidemiological studies.
The IARC committee acknowledged that those studies were susceptible to certain limitations such as recall errors by the participants and the selection criteria for participation. The classification was also based on a few animal studies which had only weak mechanistic evidence relevant to carcinogenic action. The determination that the IARC committee made was that the evidence in humans could not be dismissed as only due to bias for the group that received the highest exposures. In the monograph, the IARC committee stated that, "Time trends in cancer of the brain have not shown evidence of a trend that would indicate a promptly acting and powerful carcinogenic effect of mobile-phone use.
There are several more time trend papers that have been published since the IARC monograph. These newer time trend studies further demonstrate that while use of cell phones has risen rapidly, the incidence of brain cancer has not risen.
The FDA is responsible for, among other things, ensuring cell phones — and any radiation-emitting electronic product — are safe for the public to use. This includes, understanding the health risks if any of new electronic products that emit radiation as they become widely available to the U.
While many of the specifics of 5G remain ill-defined, it is known that 5G cell phones will use frequencies covered by the current FCC exposure guidelines kHz GHz , and the conclusions reached based on the current body of scientific evidence covers these frequencies. The FDA will continue to monitor scientific information as it becomes available regarding the potential impacts of 5G. To date, the scientific evidence indicates symptoms experienced by people who self-identify as having electromagnetic hypersensitivity occur when the individual believes they are being exposed to radio frequency energy.
Based on the available scientific evidence, their very real symptoms are not the result of radio frequency exposures. Many studies have been done to determine if participants can determine if they are being exposed to RF or a sham exposure. The results indicate people cannot sense when they are being exposed to RF.
The FDA continues to monitor all scientific publications in this area. Other sources of scientific information about RF exposure and safety is available from these U. Rats received this whole-body radiation for 9 hours per day for their entire lives.
Rats received levels of radiation that were up to 75 times higher than the whole-body exposure limit for people. The study found no health effects on female rats or mice both male and female exposed to these extreme conditions that passed a test for statistical significance.
Exposed rats lived longer than the control group rats.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
The antennas contained in mobile phones , including smartphones , emit radiofrequency RF radiation non-ionizing "radio waves" such as microwaves ; the parts of the head or body nearest to the antenna can absorb this energy and convert it to heat. Since at least the s, scientists have researched whether the now-ubiquitous radiation associated with mobile phone antennas or cell phone towers is affecting human health. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. That means that there "could be some risk" of carcinogenicity, so additional research into the long-term, heavy use of wireless devices needs to be conducted. To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use. International guidelines on exposure levels to microwave frequency EMFs such as ICNIRP limit the power levels of wireless devices and it is uncommon for wireless devices to exceed the guidelines. These guidelines only take into account thermal effects, as non-thermal effects have not been conclusively demonstrated.
Keykhosravi, M. Neamatshahi, R. Mahmoodi, E. Skin health has become a worldwide concern. Most of the studies investigated the effect of mobile phone radiation on DNA and animals, but a few studies were carried out about skin diseases in mobile phone and tablet users. Few systematic studies have examined the relationship between mobile phone exposure and skin diseases. We evaluated the association between mobile phones and tablets and skin diseases.
The Journal of Applied Research and Technology JART is a bimonthly open access journal that publishes papers on innovative applications, development of new technologies and efficient solutions in engineering, computing and scientific research. JART publishes manuscripts describing original research, with significant results based on experimental, theoretical and numerical work. The journal does not charge for submission, processing, publication of manuscripts or for color reproduction of photographs. JART classifies research into the following main fields: Material Science Biomaterials, carbon, ceramics, composite, metals, polymers, thin films, functional materials and semiconductors. Computer Science Computer graphics and visualization, programming, human-computer interaction, neural networks, image processing and software engineering.
Cellular (Cell) Phones
If a credible risk is detected, the FDA will work closely with other federal partners to mitigate the risk. The gold standard for the assessment of risk to public health remains the data and information that is available from studying effects on humans. As part of ongoing monitoring activities, the FDA analyzes published epidemiological studies for specific outcomes including brain and other tumors as well as for any evidence of other adverse events. No clear and consistent pattern has emerged from epidemiological studies.
At very high levels, RF waves can heat up body tissues. But the levels of energy given off by cell phones are much lower, and are not enough to raise temperatures in the body. The waves are strongest at the antenna and lose energy quickly as they travel away from the phone. The phone is often held against the head when a person is on a call.
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