depression and anxiety in youth scale days pdf

Depression And Anxiety In Youth Scale Days Pdf

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The RCADS-P is currently the only parent-report questionnaire that concurrently assesses youth symptomatology of individual anxiety disorders as well as depression in accordance with DSM - IV nosology. Because these disorders are not only common but also associated with significant functional impairment Bell-Dolan and Wessler ; Langley et al. Numerous measures have been designed for assessment of child and adolescent anxiety and depression.

Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (and Subscales) (RCADS)

The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—Parent Version RCADS-P is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the DSM diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder.

The RCADS-P was recently developed and has previously demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a clinic-referred sample Ebesutani et al.

Anxiety and depressive disorders are among the most common psychiatric conditions experienced by youth Lewinsohn et al. Given the significant functional impairment Birmaher et al. Traditionally, self-report measures have been the dominant method for assessing internalizing disorders in youth March and Albano ; Southam-Gerow and Chorpita as they provide an efficient and cost-effective means of gathering information. Although several measures have been developed to assess anxiety and depression [e.

This is an advantage over measures developed prior to more contemporary diagnostic classification systems e. Despite youth self-report instruments demonstrating to be useful in measuring anxiety and depression, limitations of such child and adolescent self-reports have been noted e. In contrast to the other measures discussed, the RCADS-P is also available for free, Footnote 2 thus supporting the feasibility of its use in a wider variety of settings.

Accurate classification percentages based on receiver operating characteristic analyses were also reported, ranging from Given these strengths, the RCADS-P whether utilized alone or in combination with the RCADS has the potential to be a comprehensive, efficient, and economical tool in the assessment of youth internalizing problems. Although some psychometric data based on non-clinic-referred community youth have been reported see studies noted above; Costa et al.

Additional psychometric studies using non-clinic-referred populations are needed, as evidence suggests that youths from clinic-referred settings are not fully representative of all youths with mental disorders Goodman et al.

The present study thus sought to thoroughly examine the psychometric properties of the RCADS-P and all of its subscales in a more representative, community sample of school-based children and adolescents.

An additional aim of the present study was to provide normative data, which have not yet been reported for the RCADS-P, to allow for the derivation of T-scores to increase the clinical utility and interpretability of the RCADS-P scale scores. Among the consents distributed, Additional inclusion criteria required that all forms utilized in the analyses i.

As such, nine 0. All children and parents were fluent in English. Items are summed to yield a Competence and Adaptive scale scores, b Syndrome scale scores, c DSM -oriented scale scores, and d Total Problems scale scores including Internalizing, Externalizing and Total scale scores.

Validity and reliability of the Syndrome and DSM -oriented scales have been documented Achenbach et al. The RCADS has been shown to have good internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and a factor structure corresponding to DSM problems in both community and clinical youth samples in the US Chorpita et al.

The RCADS-P also demonstrated good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and a factor structure supporting its six-factor structure in a clinic-referred sample of children and adolescents Ebesutani et al. The current study was part of a larger school-based study of negative emotions in youth, which received Institutional Review Board approval.

The youths also provided assent in a group format at school prior to data collection. After the youths completed their questionnaires, they were asked to take corresponding parent forms home which included the RCADS-P and CBCL , and parents were asked to complete and return the assessment forms to the University via self-addressed, stamped envelopes. The mean age of these youths was Retest packets were distributed and collected until the end of the study in The SPSS MVA module examines missing data patterns and imputes missing values through a maximum likelihood method based on expectation-maximization algorithms Little and Rubin Ebesutani et al.

Footnote 4. The data analytic approach of the current school-based study was based largely on the data analytic approach of the recent study examining the psychometric properties of the RCADS-P in a clinical sample Ebesutani et al. Following examination of model fit and reliability, we performed validity tests to examine the degree to which the RCADS-P Total Score, Anxiety Total Score, and individual subscales could serve as screens for anxiety and depression, in general, as well as of the specifically targeted DSM disorders.

CFI values of 0. We also compared model fit between competing models e. We examined the reliability of the RCADS-P scales through calculating cronbach alpha coefficients for each scale, item-total correlations with the scale for each item, and test-retest reliability coefficients for each scale. For the sake of interpreting results, it is important to note that the divergent validity criteria utilized in our analyses were often not orthogonal to the constructs targeted by the RCADS-P scales.

As a result, we did not expect divergent validity coefficients e. All factor loadings were statistically significant and ranged from 0. However, given that this item loaded significantly on the Panic-factor 0. We next tested the six-factor solution against alternative models, including a single-factor general negative affectivity model, and a two-factor anxiety and depression model. The factor-correlation parameter was the only additional parameter that evidenced invariance across both younger and older youth, and across boys and girls.

We thus retained all original items in the scale for subsequent analyses. An identical pattern of results was also evidenced when these analyses were conducted on the Boys-only, Girls-only, Grades 3—8 and Grades 9—12 subsamples, supporting the validity of the RCADS-P Total Score as a measure of anxiety and depression.

Given that these convergent and divergent validity criteria were not orthogonal i. Although we predicted that all correlations with these convergent validity criteria i. This expectation was based on the cross-informant nature of these analyses i.

As predicted, all correlations based on the full sample were significant and in the moderate range. A few non-significant correlations did emerge, primarily among the Boys-only subsample.

Results revealed no significant interaction or main effect for sex or grade-level across all subscales, with two exceptions. These findings are consistent with the notions that separation anxiety disorder is more common among preadolescent children Last et al.

The RCADS-P demonstrated favorable psychometric properties in the present sample of school-based children and adolescents. These results, however, are not consistent with recent findings that support collapsing MDD and GAD into a single construct e. Higa-McMillan et al. Although inclusion of these items did not substantively degrade the psychometric performance of these scales in the present validity tests, future studies should give particular attention to these items and continue to examine how they may affect measurement precision.

Regarding the reliability of the RCADS-P scales over time, all scales evidenced satisfactory test-retest correlation coefficients. However, the Panic subscale was associated with the lowest test-retest reliability coefficients. This may be due to the episodic and transient nature of panic symptoms e. At the same time, the return rate of retest packets from parents was particularly low, which may have compromised the representativeness of the current sample.

Consequently, while the RCADS-P scales appear to provide reliable estimates of MDD and the targeted anxiety disorders, additional research may focus on replicating these finding as well as addressing appropriate assessment intervals for panic symptoms. However, as child and parent reports are known to only moderately correlate with each other, inclusion of another parent-based measure that targets the same DSM related problem areas would have allowed for a better convergent validity test.

Future studies should thus consider examining the degree of convergence between the RCADS-P subscales and other parent-report measures that target comparable DSM -oriented depression and anxiety subscales. Although the results of the present study support the psychometric properties of the RCADS-P and the utility of this measure as a useful screen for identifying children and adolescents with depressive and anxiety problems in school settings, there were particular limitations as well as areas for future research and development worth noting.

Although the present study was based on a large, ethnically diverse sample, including youths from under-researched populations e. This may pose a limitation to the generalizability of the present findings. Further, there was also a low response rate of parents consenting to participate in the current study, which also contributed to low return rates of our test-retest sample.

Although low parent form return rates are typical for parent-based research in school settings cf. Higa et al. Census Bureau for the Honolulu County - the county of the schools surveyed in the present study—in order to assess how well our sample is representative of students and families of the general Honolulu County population.

Based on the most recent and available U. Census Bureau data U. It is notable, however, that there was a smaller percentage of White youths in our sample 4. Although our sample nonetheless appears somewhat representative of our targeted population, additional research appears needed with larger and more inclusive samples of youths and families from an increased variety of regions, ethnicities and backgrounds to better understand the generalizability of the present findings.

Notably, results of the present study did not identify differences in RCADS-P depression scores between boys and girls, despite girls typically evidencing more depressive symptoms than boys e.

The degree to which this finding and others inconsistent with previous research is due to characteristics specific to this sample deserves future attention. Exemplifying this point, Weems et al. The degree to which parent reports on the RCADS-P are or are not related to such internal states of children warrants future attention. Interestingly, parent-child agreement conducted on Boys-only and Girls-only subsamples revealed that agreement fell in the expected moderate range for the majority of analyses.

However, a closer investigation of the data provides additional insight into the complex nature of parent-child dis agreement research with regard to age, gender, and type of symptoms. For example, consistent with previous findings on parent-child agreement specific to anxiety subtypes, such as on the SCARED anxiety questionnaire Birmaher et al. On the other hand, parent-child agreement was smallest for GAD based on the total sample , demonstrating that the nature of parent-child agreement differs by anxiety type.

With regard to youth sex, parent-child agreement based on the Boys-only subsample fell in the very low range near zero correlation for the GAD, panic and social anxiety subscales. De Los Reyes and Kazdin recently highlighted the complexity of discrepancies between child and parent reports.

For example, these authors suggest that informant characteristics, such as youth sex, may affect parent-child agreement, but that the evidence regarding this relationship has been mixed. Some studies found youth sex to be significantly related to parent-child agreement Grills and Ollendick ; Verhulst and van der Ende , whereas other studies have not supported this finding Choudhury et al.

The present results add to this debate by supporting the notion that parent-child agreement may vary somewhat as a function of youth sex i. Specifically, a related implication worthy of further exploration is that the integration of child and parent reports on the RCADS may thus not be able to rely on a simple additive approach. Despite the noted limitations and areas for future research, the present study broadened the psychometric support for the RCADS-P to a wider population of school-based youth, and also provided normative data to allow for identifying youths who are clinically-elevated in the targeted areas of depression and anxiety problems.

The current findings also provided insight into a variety of theoretical implications regarding the assessment of psychopathology i. The pattern of results was the same, favoring the six-factor solution. Achenbach, T. Google Scholar. Psychological Bulletin, 11 , — DSM -oriented and empirically based approaches to constructing scales from the same item pools. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 32 , — Akaike, H.

Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52 , — American Psychiatric Association.

Revised Children's Anxiety and Depression Scale (and Subscales) (RCADS)

Depression and anxiety are prevalent mental illnesses among young people. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to 1 explore the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among youth and 2 identify to what extent certain variables related to COVID could predict depression, anxiety, and stress DAS among young people in six different countries. Participants were requested to complete an online survey including demographics and the DAS scale. Healthcare organisations, in collaboration with various sectors, are recommended to apply psychological first aid and design appropriate educational programmes to improve the mental health of youth. The story started back in December in Wuhan, China, when an outbreak of cases infected with a novel, deadly virus was reported.

The Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale—Parent Version RCADS-P is a parent-report questionnaire of youth anxiety and depression with scales corresponding to the DSM diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder. The RCADS-P was recently developed and has previously demonstrated strong psychometric properties in a clinic-referred sample Ebesutani et al. Anxiety and depressive disorders are among the most common psychiatric conditions experienced by youth Lewinsohn et al. Given the significant functional impairment Birmaher et al.

Child depression and anxiety have been associated with electronic media use, but the comorbidity between the two has rarely been accounted for in analyses. We examined both child and parent reports of electronic media use in relation to parent-reported child depression and anxiety. Using survey and interview data collected for 9- to year-olds from the site adolescent brain cognitive development study, we conducted generalized linear mixed models. Our results demonstrated that electronic media use was more strongly associated with depression than anxiety, and that accounting for depression significantly reduced the relationship between electronic media use and anxiety. Different categories of electronic media showed differential relationships to anxiety and depression, with video gaming and video chatting related to anxiety, but video watching related to depression.

Unless otherwise stated, CORC is not the developer or copyright holder of these measures.

Metrics details. Although anxiety and, to a lesser extent, depression are highly prevalent in children, these problems are, difficult to identify. ICCs for short-term stability were 0.

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