insecticides and pesticides in fruits and vegetables pdf

Insecticides And Pesticides In Fruits And Vegetables Pdf

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The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait.

Pesticides in our Food

The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait.

Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers.

The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended. Pesticides are considered a vital component of modern farming, playing a major role in maintaning high agricultural productivity. Consequently, in high-input intensive agricultural production systems, the widespread use of pesticides to manage pests has emerged as a dominant feature [ 1 ].

However, reliance on pesticides is difficult to sustain because of unintended long-term adverse effects on the environment and human health in particular [ 2 ]. Pesticide residues are present in all agro-ecosystems, but the real risk to human health is through exposure to residues in primary and derived agricultural products [ 3 ].

Various human health related concerns are associated with pesticides, ranging from short-term impacts such as headaches and nausea, to chronic impacts, such as various cancers, birth defects, infertility, and endocrine disruption [ 4 , 5 ].

Children, in particular, are more endangered by short-term and chronic exposure to pesticides [ 6 ]. Like other countries aiming to facilitate self-sufficiency in food production, Kuwait has rapidly increased its agricultural pesticide use, especially on vegetable crops [ 7 ]. With the intensive use of pesticides in greenhouses, crops grown under these protected environments may be prone to an increased level of pesticide residue than similar crops grown in the open field [ 9 ].

The annual consumption of pesticides in Kuwait was about 4. Not only is this high input of pesticides perceived as necessary, but pesticide mixtures are also generally considered desirable.

Farmers tend to apply pesticides too close to harvest because of lack of adequate knowledge regarding the safe and judicious use of pesticides [ 11 ], potentially contaminating the crop prior to sending their produce to the market.

Pesticide residues have been detected in a number of vegetables and other food products in Kuwait [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. Although some residue levels were below the maximum limits allowed, a few were above the limits established for these pesticides in food. In order to ensure food safety for consumers and protect human health, many organizations and countries around the world have established maximum residue limits MRLs for pesticides in food commodities [ 18 , 19 , 20 ]. Regulatory and enforcement mechanisms are also put in place by governments to monitor compliance of MRLs in food commodities.

Because of the intensive use of pesticides in Kuwaiti agriculture, systemic investigations are necessary to verify the current status of pesticide residues in different agricultural produce. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of pesticide residues in commonly used fruits and vegetables in Kuwait for use as a reference for future monitoring. The information is also critically important for developing measures that aim at reducing or preventing human health risks from harmful pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products.

The pesticides included in this study, except organochlorines, were selected on the basis of their wide use in vegetable production in Kuwait [ 7 ].

Most organochlorine pesticides, including DDT, have long been banned in Kuwait. However, their long-term persistence in the environment, especially in agricultural soils [ 21 ], and the possibility of entering the food chain via plant uptake [ 22 ] demand a continuous monitoring of these pesticides. Consequently, residues of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites were also monitored in this study.

All the organic solvents used were higher performance liquid chromatography HPLC grade. A total of fruit and vegetable samples were collected from September to August for pesticide residue analysis. The samples included eight pesticide-intensive vegetables tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini, cabbage, carrot, and potato and four fruits strawberry, watermelon, apple, and grapes , and are representative of commonly consumed commodities in Kuwait.

The fruit samples were purchased from a local market, and were originally from China apple and Jordan strawberry, watermelon, and grapes. Each representative vegetable or fruit sample was a composite of 10 subsamples of the same commodity collected through random sampling. All the samples 1—2 kg each were placed in sterile polythene bags, in an ice chess box, to avoid contamination and deterioration, labeled, and transported to the laboratory for processing.

A representative portion to g of the samples was chopped into small pieces and blended using a food processor. Vegetable and fruit samples purchased from a local shop Naureland, Kuwait that deals with imported organic produce from Germany were utilized for the recovery studies and for the preparation of the matrix-matched calibration standards. The samples were analyzed and were shown to be free of pesticides.

The extraction and clean-up method used was based on QuEChERS quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe sample preparation method for pesticides [ 24 ]. An aliquot of 15 g of homogenized sample was placed in a 50 mL centrifuge, and 15 mL of acetonitrile was added. The mixture was vortexed for one minute, followed by adding 4 g of magnesium sulphate and 1 g of sodium chloride.

The sample was centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed for clean-up. The clean-up was carried out by transferring the supernatant into another tube containing 50 mg of primary and secondary amine PSA , 50 mg of graphite carbon black GCB and mg of magnesium sulphate. Helium was used as a carrier gas with a constant flow rate of 0.

Similarly, the organophosphate pesticides primiphos-methy, chlorpyrifos-methyl, monocrotophos, malathion, diazinon, profenofos, and dimethoate and pyrethroid cypermethrin, deltamethrin, and fenpropathrin were analyzed with GC-MS. Deionized water containing 0. For each compound, two multi reaction monitoring MRM transitions were monitored. Calibration curves of each pesticide of interest were carried out in accordance with the European Commission guidelines [ 25 ].

Matrix-matched calibration standards were prepared in tomato blank acetonitrile extracts, using the multi-residue working solutions to reach a concentration ranging from 0.

Areas under the peak versus concentrations were fitted using linear regression to obtain the equation for the standard curves for the tested pesticides. The LOD for the pesticides ranged from 0. The level of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruit samples was determined. Number of fruit and vegetable samples without pesticide residue, and with residue below the maximum residue limits MRL and above the MRL a. The percentage of contaminated samples was high for all of the vegetables except for carrot, zucchini, and cabbage.

No pesticide residues were detected in any of the potato samples. Of the 34 pesticides including metabolites studied, 16 pesticides were detected in the analyzed fruit and vegetable samples Figure 1. Type of pesticide detected and frequency of detection in fruit and vegetable samples. The most common pesticides detected were deltamethrin 28 samples , imidacloprid 33 samples , cypermethrin 18 samples , malathion 10 samples , primiphos-methyl six samples , chlorpyrifos-methyl six samples , and metalaxyl six samples Figure 1.

Imidacloprid was detected in tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini, watermelon, apple, grapes, and strawberry, but only tomato two samples , cucumber three samples , watermelon one samples , and apple five samples exceeded the MRLs Table 3. Two cucumber samples had considerable levels of imidacloprid 1.

Residues of deltamethrin exceeding the MRLs were detected in watermelons four samples , apples one sample , and grapes three samples. Residues of cypermethrin that exceeded the MRLs were also found in one sample of tomato, one sample of eggplant, and two samples of grapes.

MRL exceedances were also detected for monocrotophos one watermelon sample , acetamiprid two strawberry samples , and chlorpyrifos-methyl two grape samples Table 3. A residue of diazinon was found to exceed the MRL in one sample of strawberry.

Residues of diazinon were also found in two apple samples but were below the MRL. Malathion was found in two apple samples, with detected residue levels exceeding the MRL. Only one organochlorine pesticide aldrin was detected in all of the samples analyzed. Residue of aldrin was detected in one apple sample, but was below the MRL Table 3. Fruits and vegetable samples containing no residue, one, and multiple residues are shown in Figure 2. Multiple residues were found most frequently in tomato, cucumber, bell pepper, and watermelon.

The most frequent combinations of two pesticides detected in the same sample were imidacloprid and deltamethrin 16 samples , and cypermethrin and deltamethrin 10 samples. This study shows the evidence of the presence of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. Only potatoes were free from detectable residues. The findings of this study confirm previous studies that pointed to high levels of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetable commodities in Kuwait [ 15 , 16 , 17 ].

However, in comparison, the levels of the residues in the tested fruits and vegetables were below those previously reported in other studies [ 6 , 28 , 29 ]. Imidaclropid, a systemic neonicotinoid insecticide used to control various pests of fruits and vegetables in Kuwait [ 7 ], is the most commonly detected pesticide.

Although imdaclropid is classified as moderately hazardous [ 30 ], this pesticide has been associated with human neurotoxicity [ 31 ]. Pesticides that are classified as highly hazardous diazinon, oxamyl, and monocrotophos [ 30 ] were also detected in some of the samples. Among the organochlorine pesticide studied, only aldrin was detected in one sample of apple imported from China, but this residue was below the MRL for this crop.

Because of their extreme harmful effects on human health and their long-term persistence in the environment [ 21 ], organochlorine pesticides are banned or restricted in majority of countries [ 32 , 33 ].

However, these pesticides are still being used clandestinely in some developing countries [ 34 , 35 ]. Previous studies have detected organochlorine pesticide residues in different commodities, including vegetables from Ghana, Saudi Arabia, and China [ 29 , 36 , 37 ], and fruits from China [ 38 ], but most residues were below the MRL allowed. Nevertheless, continuous consumption of food products even with moderate pesticide contamination may have negative consequences on human health in the long term [ 39 ].

Pesticides can accumulate in the tissues of organisms as they are not easily soluble [ 40 ]. The occurrence of multiple residues in some of the samples analyzed is likely to be a consequence of the application of different types of pesticides to protect a crop against different insect pests and diseases, especially vegetable crops in greenhouse environments where the incidence of pests can be extremely high [ 41 ].

The occurrence of multi-residue pesticide contamination in different commodities has also been reported in other investigations [ 9 , 36 ]. From the results, it is plausible to state that farmers were not following proper precautions with regard to the use of pesticides in appropriate dosages and at standard pre-harvest intervals.

Consequently, a large number of fruit and vegetable samples were contaminated with pesticides. The high pesticide levels in some of the samples would suggest that these pesticides have been used indiscriminately, which could lead to health problems not only to the farmers but also to the general consumers. The widespread and overuse of pesticides in Kuwaiti agriculture, especially in greenhouse vegetable production, is a serious problem.

Faced with several pest complexes, farmers simply rely on pesticides to address pest problems because of lack of viable alternative methods of pest control. Jallow et al. Pesticide application frequency in vegetable crops ranged from two times a month to once a week, depending on the crop [ 7 ]. Greater priorities must be given to develop strategies for pesticide reduction in agriculture through farmer training in judicious and safe pesticide use, and promote alternatives to chemical pest control such as biological control.

Intervention strategies by regulatory agencies to strengthen the enforcement mechanisms of current pesticide laws at the farm and retail level are a necessity in promoting safe pesticide use. Adherence to pesticide label instructions, especially pre-harvest intervals, needs to be ensured.

It is also critical to raise awareness among the general public, who may be directly or indirectly exposed to pesticides, about the risk of these chemicals and how to reduce this risk. Consumers should be aware of practical measures to reduce the contamination of pesticides in fresh agricultural produce, especially fruits and vegetables that may be consumed raw.

For example, washing, boiling, and especially peeling, have been demonstrated to reduce pesticide residues on fruits and vegetables [ 42 , 43 ]. Consequently, a follow-up investigation is needed to determine whether peeling, in particular, could reduce the dietary intake of pesticide residues in Kuwait.

Pesticides in Our Food System

Pesticide applications to crops result in varying levels of residues remaining in, or on, our food. The application of pesticides insecticides, herbicides, fungicides etc. The hidden rise in pesticides used in agriculture The residues detected on a particular food item will depend on which pesticides have been used and how persistent they are how long they take to decompose. Food items may contain the residues of just one pesticide, while in others the residues of multiple pesticides will be detectable. Due to the nature of many of the new systemic type of pesticides, residues are contained within the entire piece of produce rather than just on the surface.

Pesticides are important. They help farmers grow more food on less land by protecting crops from pests, diseases and weeds as well as raising productivity per hectare. Production of major crops has more than tripled since , thanks in large part to pesticides. The amount of wheat has increased nearly percent. Without pesticides, more than half of our crops would be lost to pests and diseases.

Bioactive Molecules in Food pp Cite as. Fruits and vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health; they constitute an important part of our daily diet. They are important sources of carbohydrates, vitamins, trace minerals, and antioxidants. Therefore, they can be contaminated by pesticides used for the protection of their culture. The use of pesticides to control pests in fruits and vegetables can lead to the presence of pesticide residues. In many reports, pesticide residues are present in the majority of fruits and vegetables; they are more detected in fruits than in vegetables. Skip to main content.

The intensive use of pesticides in fruits and vegetables has resulted in dumping of residues both in the fruits and vegetables and also in the.

Determination of Insecticide Residues in Vegetal Fruits

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Importance & Benefits of Pesticides

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Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Apr 30, This is a presentation to detect the Presence of Pesticides in fruits and vegetables.

Our industrial agricultural system relies heavily on pesticides, which control weeds, kill insects and stave off fungi. More than 1. Consumers can help reduce the demand for products grown with pesticides by purchasing organic or low-spray produce and by joining organizations fighting against the powerful multi-billion-dollar pesticide industry.

PDF | On Jan 21, , Boitshepo Miriam Keikotlhaile and others published Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables | Find, read and cite.

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

Pesticides compounds represent an important class of pollutants for food, soil and surface water resources. Cleanup by silica gel column chromatography was not necessary. Analytical parameters, such as limit of detection LOD , limit of quantification LOQ , linearity, precision, and recovery were considered for the orange fruit. A sufficient recovery of The compounds 2,4-dichlorophenol, malathion, parathion methyl, and chlorpyrifos were found in all the fruit samples analyzed.

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Я очень хочу домой. Росио покачала головой: - Не могу. - Почему? - рассердился Беккер.

Беккер попридержал его еще минутку, потом отпустил. Затем, не сводя с него глаз, нагнулся, поднял бутылки и поставил их на стол. - Ну, доволен.

Говорили, что от него уходит жена, с которой он прожил лет тридцать. А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку. Стоит ли удивляться, что он находится на грани срыва?.

 Ты же знаешь, что я бы осталась, - сказала она, задержавшись в дверях, - но у меня все же есть кое-какая гордость. Я просто не желаю играть вторую скрипку - тем более по отношению к подростку. - Моя жена вовсе не подросток, - возмутился Бринкерхофф.  - Она просто так себя ведет.

 Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку.  - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью. - Рукописью. - Да. Я решила ее издать.


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